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Principles of Training- IES Poeta Díaz Castro
Transcript of Principles of Training- IES Poeta Díaz Castro
PHYSICAL FITNESS Scientist Hans Selye introduced the General Adaptation Syndrome model in 1936
He showed the three phases that the effects of stress has on the body.
Stress is your body’s reaction to change - environmental, biological, physical, or psychological --> TRAINING
He observed that the body would respond to any external biological source of stress with a predictable biological pattern in an attempt to restore the body’s internal homeostasis.
General Adaptation Syndrome Specificity
Variation and Recovery
Continuity and Reversibility
Individuality PRINCIPLES OF TRAINING “If you want to learn to play the violin, do not practice the tuba” Specifity Principle To improve your fitness levels, you must do more than what your body is used to doing.
When more is demanded, the body adapts to the increased demand. Overload Principle Variation and Recovery “Use it or lose it” Continuity and Reversibility Your body consistently works to regain stability.
A human’s adaptive response to stress has three distinct phases: The best way to develop physical fitness for your sport is to train the energy systems and muscles as closely as possible to the way they are used in your sport. The best way to train for running is to run, for swimming is to swim, and for weightlifting is to lift weights Progression Principle To improve your fitness level, you must continually increase the physical demands to overload your systems.
If the training demand is increased too quickly, you will be unable to adapt and may break down (the burnout syndrome).If the demand is not adequate, you will not achieve optimal fitness levels You should :
1ºIncrease the volume: how long you train (time, duration, distance…)
2ºIncrease the frequency: how often you train (number of sessions per week)
3ºIncrease the intensity: how hard to train (speed, weight,...) General Specific
Volume Intensity You should change the exercises or activities regularly so that you do not overstress a part of the body: this also maintains athletes’ interest in training. After you have trained hard for several days, you should train lightly to give your body a chance to recover. The specificity principle and variation principle seem to be incompatible:
Specificity principle: "the more specific the training, the better";
Variation principle: "train by using a variety of activities"
Solution: More specific training is better, but it can become exceedingly boring. Thus some variety that involves the same muscle groups is a useful change Any adaptation will be reversed when you stop training.
If you take a break or don’t train often enough you will lose fitness, usually faster than it was gained. Individuality Principle Every athlete is different and responds differently to the same training activities.
Some factors that affect how athletes respond to training include:
age and maturation,
gender and race;
diet and sleep;
So, it’s essential to individualize training as much as possible. Training load is a term used to describe the cumulative amount of stress placed on an individual from a single workout or over a period of time The fundamental variables of physiologic stress are the intensity, volume and frequency of training.
The intensity is the qualitative component of the training load
Intensity can be quantified as a proportion of an athlete's maximum speed or strength, or by a physiologic variable such as percentage of maximum heart rate or percent heart rate reserve.
It is generally considered to be the most critical factor of training. The correct balance of low-, medium-, and high-intensity training is critical to the adaptation process. The volume of training is a quantitative component referring to the length in time of a training session, distance... Training frequency refers to the number of training sessions within a given time frame, such as a day or a week. Training load Heart Rate Training Zones Heart rate training zones are calculated by taking into consideration your Maximum Heart Rate (MHR) and your Resting Heart Rate (RHR). Within each training zone, physiological effects take place to improve your fitness. You can calculate your maximum heart rate (MHR) with the equation: 220 - age (f.e.: 220-16= 204 bpm) Resting Heart Rate (RHR): Put a watch where you can clearly see it whilst lying down. When you wake up in the morning, just determine your resting pulse rate (beats/min).
The calculation of a zone value, X%, is performed in the following way:
Subtract your RHR from your MHR giving us your working heart rate (WHR)
WHR= MHR - RHR
Calculate the required X% on the WHR giving us "Z"
Z= WHR * X/100
Add "Z" and your RHR together to give us the final value
Z + RHR
Example: The athlete's MHR is 180 and their RHR is 60 - determine the 70% value
MHR - RHR = 180 - 60 = 120
70% of 120 = 84
84 + RHR = 84 + 60 = 144 bpm Calculation of a zone value The Energy Efficient or Recovery Zone - Training within this zone develops basic endurance and aerobic capacity. All easy recovery running should be completed at a maximum of 70%. Another advantage to running in this zone is that while you are happily fat burning you may lose weight and you will be allowing your muscles to re-energise with glycogen, which has been expended during those faster paced workouts. develops your cardiovascular system (aerobic capacity): the body's ability to transport oxygen to, and carbon dioxide away from, the working muscles can be developed and improved, also getting the benefits of some fat burning The Aerobic Zone - 70% to 80% The Anaerobic Zone - Training in this zone will develop your lactic acid system. In this zone, your individual anaerobic threshold (AT) is found - sometimes referred to the point of deflection (POD).
During these heart rates, the amount of fat being utilised as the main source of energy is greatly reduced and glycogen stored in the muscle is predominantly used.
One of the by-products of burning this glycogen is lactic acid. There is a point at which the body can no longer remove the lactic acid from the working muscles quickly enough. This is your anaerobic threshold (AT). Through the correct training, it is possible to delay the AT by being able to increase your ability to deal with the lactic acid for a longer period of time or by pushing the AT higher. 80% to 90% Training in this zone will only be possible for short periods. It effectively trains your fast twitch muscle fibres and helps to develop speed. This zone is reserved for interval running and only the very fit are able to train effectively within this zone. The Red Line Zone 90% to 100% 60% to 70%