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Staff Studies

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Scott Smith

on 27 September 2018

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Transcript of Staff Studies

Staff Study Example: Problem Summary
Issues and Questions
(This is known as the Part I assignment in Canvas)

Staff Study Example: Problem Summary

Before we break into groups to discuss possible topic ideas, lets see a preview of what we are trying to accomplish.


Begin With The End In Mind

Learning Objectives

x

Facts are
numbers, data, specific information
true to the best of your knowledge and are often supported by annex materials.

Assumptions
are statements of conditions that you believe will hold true
in the immediate future but cannot be formally proved.

Facts vs. Assumptions

Staff Study Example: Problem Summary

A Word about DATA SOURCES

Good staff studies require data/information that illuminates all issues.

Sources could be:
Written data/reports produced within your own agency or from another agency.
Published Articles written on how other agencies solved the same or similar problems. Secured from print sources (library) and/or electronic sources (the Web).
Interviews with your agency staff or with staff in comparable agencies

“The study of an agency problem/opportunity with a solution presented, only requiring approval/disapproval by the executive.”

You assist the executive in carrying out the responsibilities of his/her job. Staff officer does the work the CEO would do, given the time/knowledge needed.

Writing a staff study requires the ability to:
Conduct research (gather the right information),
Analyze info (make logical reasonable sense of it),
Communicate the results using an appropriate staff study format.

What is the staff study form of STAFF WORK?

A research paper on a general topic.

A study of someone else’s problem.

An old problem.

Something the chief cannot decide.

How you (or others) feel about an issue.

An agenda that you are pushing.



The Staff Study is NOT

Your topic must be something that can be found in professional law enforcement literature or a related field:

Criminal justice
Highway safety
Psychology
Sociology
Commercial vehicles
Etc.

What is “Researchable?”

NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY
CENTER FOR PUBLIC SAFETY
SPSC CLASS #447
Burien, Washington

ORGANIZATIONAL STAFF STUDIES

Guidance for Writing the Staff Study

Focused, complete analysis of the problem,
with 3 reasonable alternative solutions,
and their advantages/disadvantages included.


Discussion and application of agency data and outside sources to your agency and its problem.

Agency-specific, not generic discussion

CAUTION! No argument for your opinion, or an effort to sell or persuade the reader to what YOU want.

REMEMBER:
Keep it brief (material for your case goes to an annex )
Cite and use outside sources to make your points.
Give 3 alternative solutions/approaches which will be narrowed to one –your Recommendation.

In groups of 2 to 3 discuss potential topics for your staff study

Come up with two options - a primary and an alternate

When discussing your topics, discuss the problem, what issues and questions you foresee and the data you will need to complete the study.

Allotted Time: 20-30 Minutes

By
Monday, September 17, 2018
turn in a 1-1.5 page “Staff Study Problem Summary” with topic & plans for staff study (See examples posted to Canvas).

Review handout attached as a model

The goal is to keep it to one page

Submit in Canvas.

First step: Select a topic, Get Approval

There are two kinds of analysis:

Qualitative:
your understanding relies on an article/website, interviews and surveys your experience and wisdom with the problem

The data
(not your opinions)
should drive the argument!

Grey analysis
, there is no black and white, no absolute right or wrong, it is your research and assessment of the alternative solutions of what will and will not work well in your department.

Quantitative:
numbers, tables, statistics, etc.; this can be impressive, but . . . (you better know what you are doing!)

Black and white, greater or lesser
. Numbers, etc.
Don’t go there unless you know what you are talking about.
40 deaths to 60 deaths, that is bad, let the numbers speak for themselves.
Do not do statistical analysis unless you really know what you are doing.
Information Analysis

Written out during the classroom exercise

Considered and discussed after class (approved by the agency?)

Explained in a one-page “Staff Study Problem Summary” (aka Part I Assignment) to be submitted by
23:59 hours on Monday, September 17, 2018 in Canvas
.

Marked “Approved”/ “Caution!“ (changes?) (assistance offered in narrowing the topic)

Choosing a TOPIC


Consider & evaluate alternative solutions.

Recommend and discuss the best SOLUTION; Submit this for approval/disapproval.

Append necessary documents:

(1) Supportive conclusions
(Appendices, current budget documents, Internal memos, SOPs, things that need to be attached to study)

(2)Needed for implementation
(And here is how you need to do it implementation schedules, personnel assignments, guidance directives, revised SOPs, etc.)



STAFF WORK also requires that we:

Explain what is expected for the staff study.

Show what A-papers look like, B-papers, etc.

Be clear about how studies are graded.

Explain each staff study element & how to accomplish it.

Illustrate the look and format of professional staff studies.
Assist (if needed) in student topic selection.

Establish procedures for the total process.

BE POSITIVE, ENCOURAGING, and REALISTIC

My Job (in this class)

Follow the outline provided and use the materials found in Canvas to assist you.

Make notes, ask questions.

Select a
current agency problem/issue/opportunity
requiring attention (tentative topic of your staff study).

Describe an agency problem on a worksheet & discuss it with another student (exercise).

Plan to
submit a one page problem summary
.

Don't dread the staff study...embrace it and commit yourself to doing a good job because many people will be reading your finished product.

Your Mission [In This Class]
Should You Choose To Accept It:


What, if any, less-lethal weapons should be carried by the forcible entry team?

Creating a thorough and consistent pre-employment background investigation process.

Develop and implement a tactical medical training program.

Patrol scheduling and reducing officer fatigue.

Establishing a contemporary firearms qualification course for the police department.

Creating a body-worn camera program.

Create and implement a Police Foundation.

Implementation of the IACP Mental Health First Aid Program for the XXX Police Department.

Implementing a field training program for the new highway patrol sergeant.

Should the XPD have its own SWAT team, or only participate in the regional program?

How best to deal with patrol officers who seem to need psychological counseling?

Most effective use of agency (or outside) resources in resolving the crash problem at intersection X?

Staffing study for traffic division.

Staff Study Topics (examples)

These must appear in an annex!


They are what your CEO will need to act on your recommendation:
Revised policy

General orders
Implementation schedule
Who will be on the oversight/development committee
Cost summaries
Etc.


What are
“Implementation Guidelines?”
(aka Implementation Plan)
The topic must be one you can
research.

The topic must be something that permits you to write
implementation guidelines (a plan to get things done).

Additional Staff Study Requirements

Scott Smith
Center For Public Safety
scott.smith3@northwestern.edu
480-206-9918


Presented by:

Staff Study

Assumptions are current issues that
cannot be proven, but that everyone can agree upon; or future issues that may continue or become an issue, if the problem is not addressed.
Your assumptions allow you and the reviewer to assume items (no proof needed) as part of the foundation of the study.

This helps you establish a framework/boundaries for which to stay within so your staff study doesn't become too big.

Assumptions are:

Displayed as bullet points

Items claimed to be true and held the same, to narrow and focus the topic. (keep it manageable)


Unchangeable aspects of your problem emphasized to free you from considering them.

● Statements of how significant the problem/a part of it is (and it won’t get any better).

● You can ASSUME these items (no proof needed) and move on: “We hold X, Y, or Z to be true & will not change ”

● Assumptions draw lines around the problem; can be future tense, or will remain so (no further discussion needed)

● Only show those that are relevant
x

True of all sources!

Evaluate your Web sources carefully:

Just because something appears on a Web page, this doesn’t mean that it’s true.
Does the cite give a balanced reporting of the situation with good evidence?
Does it display bias?
What authorities are cited? Reliable? Believable?
What sources are provided as backup? (ditto)
Avoid authorless, incomplete sites and pages that are confusing.

Data Sources:
Internet Caution!

Info/facts in the:

Problem statement
Facts section
Discussion
Conclusion
Annex to the RECOMMENDATION

. . .AND LITTLE INFO MEANS LITTLE WORK

Info/facts = HARD WORK

So, what is staff work?

Recognize, document, and define an agency PROBLEM

Select relevant DATA (information) for a solution: from within the agency and from outside

Two kinds of DATA:
Primary/original (seek the source - ie Survey)
**Survey is the easiest way to do this**
Secondary (seeks interpretation - written/electronic such ie journal articles, media articles, etc).

**We want to see both types in your staff study**


ANALYZE data (make logical, reasonable sense of it).

STAFF WORK requires that we:

High level problem/opportunity for change

Specific to your division

Currently pressing (you are commanded to prepare a document for the general)

Recommendation for action that he can sign off on (or not)


A MILITARY MODEL

These are essential

Your paper must:

1. Address a
management level problem or issue

2. The problem/opportunity must be
SPECIFIC
to your agency

3. The problem/opportunity is
CURRENT
and

4. The
DECISION-MAKER CAN IMPLEMENT
solution to solve the problem.



FOUR GENERAL STAFF STUDY REQUIREMENTS

Develop needed management/staff skill.

As you move up, you are increasingly called upon to explain your ideas in writing.

As a manager you are better able to evaluate studies written for YOU (separate quality work from “junk”).




DISCUSSION

Why do I need to learn how to do a staff study?...(I'd rather be watching Lifetime)




Born and Raised in Illinois (Skokie & Glencoe)
Attended New Trier High School (Go Trevians!)
Received BS in Justice Studies @ Arizona State Univ.
Received M.Ed in Educational Leadership @ Northern Arizona University
Graduate of SPSC #360 - Evanston


So Who Is This Guy?!?

Apply what you’ve learned

You make applications (in the Discussion section) &

You state your own views (in the Conclusion section)
from the data,
from what studying it tells you, and
from your new understanding (of the problem)

You interpret & apply a solution to the problem & assist the boss with making the right decision - This leads directly to your recommendation.

DATA INTERPRETATION

Research means collecting, assessing, and interpreting information. Show you understand what you got from references and that you get what you got from other agencies and officers. You have to understand it, that is a requirement. You gain credibility when you show you have done research. *


“The collection, analysis and interpretation of data regarding a specific agency problem/opportunity to make positive change.”

Purpose: to produce clear understanding of the problem or opportunity, which in turn leads to an effective decision.

Police research has been used to:
Develop new ways to administer programs,
Evaluate existing programs, policies & procedures
Produce hands-on solutions, effective policy, etc,


x

YOU ARE THE BOSS’ EYES, EARS, BRAIN
(for this assignment...well, maybe more but I don't know your boss)

To advise your leader what course to take for the right reasons (not what you want to happen for selfish reasons).

To study, write and rewrite until you have a clear discussion & single proposed action.

(the best ACTION of alternatives considered; the manager then merely approves/disapproves, or. . .)

Your job! (as a staff officer)

The staff study is a form of “staff work”

(
Unfortunately, until your police department is the [Enter Your Name Here] Police Department, you are staff)
Your paper must:

Address a
management level problem or issue/opportunity

specific to your agency
that is
current
and the
decision-maker can implement to solve
the problem.



FOUR REQUIREMENTS

What problem are you interested in solving?*
Is there an opportunity present to set your organization up for success?


A document written at the request of your boss, for the purpose of . . .

ADDRESSING AN AGENCY PROBLEM OR OPPORTUNITY &
PROPOSING A SOLUTION OR CHANGE (in the form of a recommendation for action)

What is exactly is a Staff Study?

Starts with a solid, documented agency problem or opportunity for change

The problem/opportunity is researched.
Alternate solutions are discussed & applied using information from LE literature, the agency and peer agencies.
A final solution is proposed as a short recommendation with implementation guidelines
Solution gets implemented.
Congrats!! - You get to keep your job, maybe get a commendation, and possibly get promoted; most likely, you will get another staff study to complete and will be closer to retirement.
A Successful Staff Study...
Problem Stated
Make sense of it and utilize data
Conclusions and Recommendation
You Are A Superstar!
Four Steps
Complete and solid data gathered
*
Identify and define well the problem first, no shifting sand*

Do research, find info in your agency, talk to people from other agencies, collect information, how can the problem can be solved?

Work at understanding what you gathered, make sense of it, interpret it, and apply it.

Then wrap it up and come to a conclusion, this is how the problem should be solved, therefore it is recommended that we do this.

Go have a cold frosty beverage of your choice
Did you do the heavy lifting or not? From info and data, draw conclusions and add it to the problem

Did you do the heavy lifting or not? From info an data, draw conclusions and add it to the problem

“I saw it on the web, so I know it is true"…do not buy this.

Look to see if the author has shown references and has shown credibility; avoid product sales sites.


9 Distinct Parts + Executive Summary
Subject/Title
Adequate for proper identification

Title: Broad middle ground, enough words to have a reasonable idea about what the staff study is going to cover (Consider Action Words in Title).

“Better traffic enforcement” does not do it, what is the nature of the problem, whose problem is it.

The best title is one that could pass off as a sentence or a question. How could the PD best reduce accidents on the west side of town. (Title lends itself to a solution)


Problem
A clear, complete and concise statement of the identified problem (or opportunity); specific and manageable; identified organizationally within the agency; lends itself to a single decision.

In some way, prove you have a problem, document it, show that it really is a problem, references from literature, surveys in the agency, etc. Keep body of paper to no more than 5 pages,
typically the problem is maybe a half page or 3 small paragraphs, typically should be more than 1 paragraph, not more than 1 page.

Assumptions:
Assumptions are things that are held true in the future. For example: there will be no additional budget; there will be no additional manpower; technology will continue to improve; citizen complaints will continue to increase, etc.

A listing of the issues, understandings, consequences to be assumed for a realistic, complete study of the problem.

Not facts, but items kept the same for sake of the study.

There are many things over which we do not have control, so perhaps this would be better titled as the given:

The authorized strength of the agency is not going to change…we will not get more bodies

No radical increases in budget.

Facts
All pertinent, necessary agency information, often supported by annexes (statistical data, tables, charts, policies, court decisions, etc.)

These are the things that we know are true that we are going to give up front

Current strength is 827, 400 assigned to patrol.
The budget for traffic enforcement equipment is $110,000.
The population is…
as an annex you can show the budget page.
Decrease of budget over the last 5 years in an annex.
Things you want to lay out up front, more convenient to do it here.

Note - An annex is documentation to prove an asserted fact.
Discussion
A brief, complete analysis of the issues and problem-facts, with reasonable alternative solutions covered, with their advantages/disadvantages. (This leads to the conclusions & recommendation. Elaborative material in annexes.)

One solution beginning to emerge. References from the literature, other agencies, interviews, and surveys are cited.

T
his section will be about half of the paper. Here is what you found in your agency, research, other agencies, alternative solutions, pros and cons as to how that turned out or would turn out for your agency. This is where you show your scholarship

USE OF SUB-HEADINGS IS ENCOURAGED
Staff Study
9 Distinct Parts + Executive Summary
Conclusion
The problem-solution derived from the analysis & interpretation of the implications of the facts.

Statements are consistent with the assumptions, facts and discussion given above.

Alternative lines of action are eliminated here.


Recommendations
Complete, concise, clear-cut statement of the action proposed, allowing for approval/ non-approval.

Usually supported by annexes containing all written directives needed for implementation.


(Space and lines are provided for the signatures of those responsible for the problem area, or who have a stake in it, indicating their concurrence or not with explanation)
Works Cited
A listing of all information-sources referred to in the staff study.


GIVING CREDIT WHERE CREDIT IS DUE

Annexes
All necessary attachments which are
(a) supportive of conclusions, or
(b) needed for executing the proposed decision
(c) proof of fact

Prior to your 1st Annex, you will need an Annex Table of Contents; your last Annex will be an Implementation Annex
Staff Study
An Executive Summary is then added summarizing:

The Problem
Alternative Solutions
Recommendation (with signature box)

**1 Page Cliff's Notes**
Consider the following helpful tips and examples when creating your Staff Study title and title
page.
● When read aloud, your title should sound positive, and professional.
● Eliminate any negative aspects.
● Make general, not specific, reference to solution.
● Provide the agency name, and the section or unit, where the problem is found.
● You title can be stated as a question or as an objective.
● There is no need to make the title catchy, nor to make it an effort to sell your idea or
solution.
Title Examples:
Options for creating a thorough and consistent preemployment
background investigation
process within XXXX Police Department
Options for addressing issues, policies, and procedures with the ride along program within
XXX Police Department
Patrol scheduling to reduce officer fatigue in XXX Police Department
Establishing a contemporary firearms qualification course for XXX Police Department
How many supervisors are needed for adequate coverage of all three patrol shifts in the
XXX Police Department?
Options for implementing a field training program for the new highway patrol sergeant in
the XXX Police Department
Should the XXXX Police Department have its own SWAT team, or only participate in the
regional program?
Before beginning a study, you must define the problem or opportunity for change you will attempt to address.

This consists of
knowing what the issues are
and
what the questions surrounding the issues
may be.

You will also need to determine what types of data you will need.

When combined, the scope and framework of your staff study will materialize.

(This step is critical because it sets up your entire paper).

Title and Problem

1. Title Page
2. Problem
3. Assumptions
4. Facts
5. Discussion
6. Conclusion
7. Recommendation
8. Works Cited
9. Annexes

*Plus Executive Summary
*Presentation to Staff
Staff Study Components
Title: all-caps, bold, ¼ down the page (divide page in fourths)

Your name & department (2 lines), ¼ down

Then another ¼ down:
A Staff Study Submitted to the
Northwestern University Center for Public Safety
School of Police Staff & Command
Class # ___
(location)
(date final paper is due)

Title Page Format
Paper Format
Use single or 1.5 spacing between lines

Margins: one inch all around

Left justification

Font: 12 point Times New Roman or other business (with serifs) font

Number pages (
not title page, Works Cited page, or annexes
)

Paragraphs: space between, no indent

Thin cover is good for “actual” submission but binders irrelevant to electronic submissions.

Label annexes A, B, C, etc. and put tabs on them

Headings
(Problem, Assumptions, Facts, Discussion, Conclusion, Recommendation)
Free-standing, left justified and
underlined, bold

Sub-headings
are a good way to break up text within your Discussion
Free-standing,
left justified, italicized, NOT BOLDED.

Use bullets (or numbers) generously


Title Development
Positive & professional sounding

Keep out any negative aspects

General (not specific) reference to solution

Provide the agency (section, unit) name where the problem is found

Can be stated as a question or as an objective

Not catchy (or effort to sell)
Title Examples
Options for creating a thorough and consistent preemployment
background investigation process within XXXX Police Department

Options for addressing issues, policies, and procedures with the ride along program within XXX Police Department

Patrol scheduling to reduce officer fatigue in XXX Police Department

Establishing a contemporary firearms qualification course for XXX Police Department

Should the XXXX Police Department have its own SWAT team, or only participate in the regional program?

How best to deal with patrol officers who seem to need psychological counseling in the XXX Police Department?
What's Your Problem? When in doubt, write it out...
Consider the following tips and examples when devising your Staff Study Problem.

1. Assume the reader knows nothing
a. Can this section stand on its own?
b. Is the quote “problem,” clear to someone outside the agency?

2. Make it CONCRETE:
a. agency facts , specific data , descriptions , issues will be included in supplemental
data/docs, Annexes AND cite the annexes or work cited sources in the problem
statement.

3. Prove that it is a problem, with proper documentation or citations.

4. Can show URGENCY (Important and needs a solution now)!
Or can show a NEED to address this issues for the future

5. Remain CONCISE & CLEAR. Remove extraneous words, rewrite and revise until your
problem is
lean and to the point.

6. If referring to an agency policy or directive in the problem statement, Annex the policy or
directive and refer to it as Annex “X”; e.g. Annex B .

7. Edit & rewrite as needed. Show it to an outside person and ask them, “
Is this clear to
you? Do you understand the problem?”
Problem Statements Con't
Writing the Problem Statement 3 Steps:

1. When composing your problem statement, be sure to address the following questions:
● What is the problem/opportunity?
● How do you know there is a problem/opportunity?
● Where has the problem occurred/where is opportunity?
● When has it occurred? And how often?
● Who is involved in, or affected by this problem/opportunity? Assumptions start to appear.
● What happens if nothing is done?

2. Rewrite the problem concisely, and within your problem statement, create one
researchable objective.

Examples include:
This study will be dedicated to determining if the implementation of an
Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS), within the ACCPD, can be an effective
method in providing the citizens of Athens Clarke County with progressive
technology in time sensitive incidents, if such a program is feasible and how it
can be accomplished.

Developing a mentoring and training program will ensure consistent training of
newly promoted sergeants.

Make sure the last sentence in your problem statement says, “If something is not done
about XYZ problem , then ABC will happen .
Problem Summaries/Statements Con't
3. Be cognizant of proper formatting.

● Use single or 1.5 spacing between lines:

● Margins: one inch all around

● Left justification

● Font: 11-12 point with business font (examples: Times Roman, Calibri)

● Number pages (not title page, Works Cited page, or annexes)

● Paragraphs : space between,
no indent

● Headings - Freestanding, left justified and underlined, bold
Problem Summary Examples
Assumptions - What are they?
Your assumptions allow you and the reviewer to assume items (no proof needed) and move on:

“We hold X, Y, or Z to be true & will not change ”. Assumptions draw lines around the
problem; future tense, true and will remain so (and no further discussion is needed).

Don’t make them obvious! Only show those that are relevant.

For the purposes of your staff study,
ideally use 3-5 bullet points.

Your assumptions must be listed as bullet points.
Assumption Examples
● The ABC Police Department will not receive any additional funding.
● The ABC Police Department will not be able to change Union bylaws
or guidelines.
● Shift hours will not change for the ABC Police Department.
● Technology will continue to advance in the area of bodycam
technology.
● Citizen complaints will continue to occur and increase in the ABC Police Department.
● The ABC Police Department will receive the pending terrorist threat grant.
Facts will be mentioned in your Staff Study and are similar in nature to assumptions. Besides the title, the facts and assumptions may be the shortest part of your paper.

You will list at least three bullet points, often many more, outlining the facts related to your problem statement.


Facts include pertinent, necessary background data about the agency, and the agency’s problem, that will be used in the “Discussion.”
● Facts are often supported by Annexes which are statistics, tables, charts, court decisions, and policies, or sources, your works cited.

Facts
• On a daily basis, suspected prostitution services are being advertised on various websites to include Backpage.com; in a Backpage.com search conducted on 4/7/14 at 2015 hours, 34 ads were located listing Tempe as an area serviced (Annex C).

• The Tempe Police Department is comprised of approximately 343 sworn officers and 148 civilian employees, yet it does not have a full-time Vice Crimes Unit dedicated to proactively combatting adult prostitution and juvenile sex trafficking, nor has an emphasis been placed on conducting proactive enforcement.

• In 2012, the City of Tempe’s estimated daytime population was 244,000 and Tempe Police officers responded to 150,800 calls for service, yet only 10 arrests were made for prostitution; similarly, in 2013, only 9 arrests were made for prostitution (Annex D).


FACTS
Something stated as a “fact” often is best illustrated with agency data as proof in an Annex (Annex A) or a cited reference

Facts Con't
List a minimum of
three
facts about your agency or your agency problem.


Remember you must provide facts about your actual agency in this section. The Facts section usually
will require annexes and citations
. These should be easy to find as they are often written and documented facts.
Facts and Assumptions Can Be Very Similar
Fact:
The new MegaMall on the west side of town is scheduled to open in the fourth quarter of the year.

Assumption
: The new MegaMall on the west side of town will open during the fourth quarter of the year.

*You must decide which makes more sense for your study*
Discussion
LONGEST SECTION DATA SPECIFICS


Discussion Con't

The idea here is to solve a problem/change for the better.

Problem when you go into the oh, woe is me, this is horrible, we operate horrible, we have go to do something, it is bad, blah, blah, blah. Make the case for the problem in the problem section. If you need to provide a little more info, great, but don’t beat the problem to death, solve the problem, that is what you are supposed to be doing, how are we going to fix it, what have I learned form the literature, from other agencies, from my own people, from within the agency.

What are the pros and cons, what do other agencies say, how can I fix it;
Here is where you say this is how I did my homework, and this is how I will solve this problem in my agency. We do not just need to hear the best practice, but how this will work in your agency.

This will be as big a section as everything else combined. Case studies are very helpful of how other agency's have done it, that belong in an annex. Trends of how things can be reduced or proof can be mentioned in a summary, but the summary belongs here only, the rest in an annex. This is where you show what you know and what you learned from doing your research.

Discussion Con't

Rudimentary Components of Discussion: Background, Subheadings, Possible Solutions

(or Alternative Solutions),
and you may use these as subheaders within your paper.

Most papers will/should have additional subheaders after Background such as: Review of Literature, Survey/Comparative Analysis, Cost Analysis, Case Law Considerations, Liability Concerns, Financial Impact...]

BACKGROUND
: A common problem is that the writer simply continues to write about the urgency or importance of the problem. The time to tell us about the problem was in the problem statement, and that time has passed. A short introduction of the problem, issues, etc. with necessary validation or substantiation starts the discussion.

SUBHEADINGS
: Multiple subsections which are logical and provide depth and context to your problem/opportunity and lead to solutions.

POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS/CONSIDERATIONS/OPTIONS
: In this section, you have no voice. You
are not a subjective filter; you are an objective vacuum cleaner that gathers information without judgment.

What you are looking for is what anyone else with a similar problem has done to solve it. That is the point of your research, and this is the section where you lay it out.

You want to have at least three (3) options.

You must stay on topic. Remember your paper should be no more than 5-6 pages. Additional
information can be listed in annexes. Keep focused. Your discussion section should be no more
than 3-4pages, at most.
NOW YOU GET TO SAY WHAT YOU THINK!!
(First, narrow & apply what you said in the DISCUSSION section.)

How to do this . . .

Summarize how you stated the problem, major points of the discussion, the alternative solutions, and eliminate all but one
(meaning you have to address each one briefly in this section and why two of the three aren't the best and why the bests is the best).

You can now make an ARGUMENT for the alternative solution that is your recommendation.

Make it agency-specific, with agency data/info.
When presenting the solution, use the language of the problem statement.

Do this and it will be convincing and lead right into the Recommendation (WHY, HOW, WHAT)

Conclusion
Recommendation
Tip #1
Tip #2
Tip #3
In the recommendation section, you should have ONE clear, short, specific to the agency
statement of the action recommended to the CEO (and an implementation annex).
[What should the Chief do?]
In the recommendation section
you must mention an implementation annex
. This is an annex that you must CREATE, a
minimum required one (1) annex, in which you will include:

● Specific details of the action/decision (names, plans, actions needed, costs), or an Implementation Schedule, or a Written directive from the CEO to the agency executing your recommendation.
At the end of the recommendation section,
create signature blocks
for administrative staff responsible for the problem area, or who have a stake in the recommendation.
Recommendation
The Tempe Police Department must commit itself to combatting DMST in our community. As such, implementing a proactive and sustainable department wide strategy – which is holistic in nature, and detailed above under “Alternative #3” - is required.
A proposed implementation schedule has been included as an annex.

__________________________________ Concur.
Chief of Police Tom Ryff

Do not concur
.



Additional Comments:

Works Cited
Research is mandated in your staff study. You must cite this research both in the text of the paper (according to APA style) and in the Works Cited section (ahdering to complete APA
citation of works cited.) Be sure every recsearch item cited, and footnoted within the body of your paper, is also listed in your Works Cited section.

● Minimum mandates at least four (4) sources
● At least two different types of sources (either: online,
interview, survey, book, periodical)
● All sources are included in the works cited page and cited in the text.
Refer to Examples and APA Style Manual for Specifics
Works Cited Con't
Annexes

Supporting documents
to illustrate/support items in staff study (reports, data, outside articles, interview form, or illustrations of problem,etc.)

Short, lean, include only what a busy reader wants to see.

Consider each a separate document and label Annex A, B, C, etc.

Must tie in with the study and be referred to in the text; e.g., (see Annex B) or (Annex C).

Pages have own numbering

Hi-light the point you are making when appropriate

Implementing documents:
written directives for CEO’s use in implementing the recommendation. Each a separate annex.

Annexes
Must Have A Minimum of 3

All annexes must be labeled (such as Annex A, Annex B, etc.) and sourced within the main content.

Create a Table of Contents for Annexes
One must be written by the student and provide amplification or implementation
guidance for the recommendation (this one is only required with the final submittal)
One must be created by the student
One stems from outside source
Write with authority; you are the expert

Use 3rd person: no “I/me,” “we,” “you”

Stay focused & lean; <5 pp. leaves no room for generic discussions, history of. . ., “some points,” etc. Follow the 9 elements format. (No BS)

Professional: no folksiness, being clever or informal, or “taking shots”

Write as if reader is not me but the executive (or that person’s boss/board)
Writing Style
Common Errors
The City Police Department (CPD) currently has 47 sworn officers. The
P
olice
D
epartment is currently approved for 50 sworn officers by the
V
illage
B
oard. The command staff of the CPD has one (
1) C
hief of
P
olice, three (
3) C
aptains, and eight
(8)

S
ergeants. The
D
epartment also has
fourteen (
14
)
non-sworn employees assigned to
R
ecords and as
C
ommunity
S
ervice
O
fficers. The
D
epartment is broken into three
(3)
divisions; Field Operations Division (FOD), Support Services and Criminal Investigations Division (CID). Each division has one
(1) C
aptain assigned to oversee operations of that division. Each division has
S
ergeant(s) assigned to assist in the supervision of the division. Support Services has one
(1) S
ergeant, CID has one
(1) S
ergeant and FOD has six (
6) S
ergeants.

Rank is not a proper noun, it is a job title.

The general guide is if it is 10 or under write out the word, 11 or over, use the number (exception - never start a sentence with a number and you should be consistent in the sentences)

The City Police Department (CPD) currently has 47 sworn officers. The police department is currently approved for 50 sworn officers by the village board. The command staff of the CPD has one chief of police, three captains, and eight sergeants. The department also has 14 non-sworn employees assigned to records and as community service officers. The department is broken into three divisions; Field Operations Division (FOD), Support Services and Criminal Investigations Division (CID). Each division has one captain assigned to oversee operations of that division. Each division has sergeant(s) assigned to assist in the supervision of the division. Support Services has one sergeant, CID has one sergeant and FOD has six sergeants.

Common Errors
Common Errors - Fixed
WHAT:
“Using another’s text or ideas without giving them the credit.” (definition)

Fancy word for a simple reality—theft!

We all use others’ ideas but must give credit by a cite, mentioning the name or doc. in the text. We are free to use their ideas or data, but give them credit.

Matter of professional integrity! No one produces original ideas that often; once you indicate where you got the data/idea, you can do almost anything with it.


Plagiarism
Executive Summary
The executive summary should never exceed one page.

Due with the final draft

It has three components
A brief restatement of the problem
Review of the alternative solutions
Final recommendation summary w/signature line

A Successful Staff Study
Starts with a solid, documented agency problem.

The problem is researched, alternate solutions are discussed & applied using information from the LE literature, the agency and peer agencies

A solution is proposed with a succinct recommendation and implementation guidelines.

Your staff study is evaluated twice, (the first counting for about 40% of the final grade and the second about 60%)

1st evaluation (Rough Draft - aka Part II): of title page, problem statement, assumptions, facts, and discussion-- with annex place holders (due: Monday, October 8, 2018).

2nd evaluation (Final - aka Part III): of the total paper (due: Monday, November 5, 2018). A 1-page executive summary must be included.

* due dates may vary depending on the duration of the SPSC

Evaluation of Staff Studies
Grading and Guidance
Key Concepts

Is there a clear, solid, well-supported problem statement?

Fact supported discussion with assessment of alternatives?

Concise recommendation with solid implementation guidance?

Comprehensive, appropriate references from agency, peers, and literature?

Grading and Guidance
Topic and Problem
Topic: Covers the Study's 4 essentials:
Management-level problem
Specific to your agency (district, unit, etc.)
Current and needed
Decision-maker can implement

Problem statement:
Concise, clear, urgent, concrete
Pure problem (no solution, no discussion, no argumentation)
Data used to convince (annexes?)

Grading and Guidance
Assumptions and Fact
Assumptions:
Substance to them (not obvious); lean, meaning they help to limit the problem, helpful
Specific to the problem

Facts: (data/info)
Specific to your agency and to the problem
(Save argumts./discussion points for DISCUSSION)
Enough for a focused pre-look at the problem
What uninformed reader needs to know
Supported by annexes when appropriate

Grading and Guidance
Discussion
Objective data-analysis of agency data, survey interview data, appropriate WEB articles, other docs/issues
no opinion/argumentation

Moves quickly from “problem” to solution-focus
Analysis = presentation + discussion
+ application to the problem

Agency & Problem specific (appropriate thoroughness)

Data, facts, specific agency application

Required WEB and/or professional articles are presented, discussed and applied

Alternative solutions discussed

Needed extra material put in annexes and used

Grading and Guidance
Discussion Problems
Writer does not find appropriate key articles on the problem & analyze them (presentation+discussion+application)

Has some references, but peripheral, shallow, not analyzed, looks like “padding” )

Often good problem statement, assumptions, facts, but then followed only by: history of problem, on-and-on about problem & then “here is what I think we should do.” NO REAL WORK AT SOLVING THE PROBLEM!


SOLID INFORMATION + DATA-ANALYSIS=HARD WORK


The boss does not care about your unsupported opinion!
Wind-up with no pitch!

Little agency data-analysis about the problem (generic, non-agency comments)

Argues for one solution only (unproven opinion)

In the DISCUSSION
You don’t argue, you prove!


Grading and Guidance
Discussion Problems
Conclusion
Presented & argued as your solution to the problem (as given in “problem” statement)

Agency-specific
Supported by the discussion
Alternative lines of action are eliminated

Should lead automatically to the recommendation

Here’s the place to argue your solution.

Mention other alternatives, and show how one is the best solution.

ARGUE the case for the alternative solution you will make your recommendation.

YES! Now you can try to prove/persuade the reader to accept your solution (provided you did the homework in the Discussion).

Conclusion
Recommendation
Here is where it all comes to the final pay-off!

In a short paragraph
(or a few bulleted items)
describe the ONE action/decision you are recommending:

Place implementation guideline materials in the annexes.
Keep the recommendation succinct and to the point.

Where Recommendations Go Wrong
All is said is that “something oughta be done”

It is your job to say (and show) with some detail what is to be done – and how! And possibly by WHO! (with implementation guidelines)

The work on the recommendation should be enough that the boss only needs to sign off to make it so!

Works Cited Page & Annexes
Works Cited page complete, lists only works actually cited and used in the text.

WC page brief and consistently formatted

All annexes and “works cited” referred to in the text properly

ANNEXES

Only necessary annexes attached

Annexes really used in the paper

As brief as possible

Relevant passages marked for the reader

Is the problem clearly and succinctly restated?

Are alternative solutions provided in summary form?

Is your recommendation clear and able to be implemented by the chief?

Executive Summary
General Quality
Faithful to staff study format elements & purpose

Reads like a SS: formal, objective, based on data analysis

Writing: grammar, clear, concise, edited

Layout: attractive, use of space

Document appearance: printing, formatting, fonts, etc.

Grading
Did you Solve the problem?
(answer the question?)

Are the references good ones? Are they used and cited in the text?

Is the discussion section focused and complete?

Can an outside reader understand it?

Can the boss make his/her decision?

Final Deliverables
Title Page

Up to 5 page staff study addressing all sections as detailed above (1-page executive summary at end)
(see Canvas handouts attached as models)

Works Cited page: At least
4 sources

Annex Page:
At least 3 Annexes (1 must be a Implementation Plan) ......!!!!!

Title Page & Problem Statement Due (aka Part I):
9/17/18

1st Draft Due (aka Part II):
10/8/18

Final Draft Due (aka Part III):
11/5/18 (remember...Executive Summary required)

Presentation:
11/14/18

Executive Summary Page

“Executive Summary” – top centered

(Title) – centered

Statement of the problem (with heading: Problem)
Explanation of the options (heading: Possible Solutions)
Recommendation (heading: Recommendation)
Signature Line

First Submittal
All papers delivered in an electronic format.

Send Rough Draft (aka Part II)
through Canvas
by
Monday, October 8, 2018

Send as a single document:
The title page
Problem statement
Assumptions
Facts
Discussion
Works Cited
Annex Table of Contents
Annexes / Or Annex Placeholders

Second Submittal
Send the entire paper (2nd submittal/ Final aka Part III)
through Canvas

by Monday, November 5, 2018.

Title page
Problem statement
Assumptions
Facts
Discussion
Conclusion
Recommendation (w/Signature Line)
Works cited page
Annex Table of Contents
Annexes
1-page executive summary (w/Signature Line)
Send all the above as a single document, then. . .
(Each annex can be a separate document)

A THING CALLED LIFE...
Gather & evaluate internal & external data- sources on an agency problem or issue.

Develop & evaluate alternative solutions.

Recommend specific action for the approval of the agency CEO.

Gather & attach the necessary documents supportive of your conclusions, or essential to the execution of the proposed action/plan.

Prepare and submit one properly formatted staff study document that meets the above criteria.

BUT I SUBMIT TO YOU IT IS MORE THAN THIS...
Done correctly, a staff study is a positive sales pitch, to make a long-lasting positive impact on your organization and your community; based on reliable data to make the right decision for the right reasons...
TO INSPIRE POSITIVE CHANGE START WITH "WHY?"
Do Not Get Your Data Here...
Brain Break...
START WITH THE WHY!!
WHAT EXACTLY IS A STAFF STUDY?
(From a Generational Perspective)
Funny, sometimes true, but not for this assignment...
Thanks for hanging in there with me
We are finished...
Refer to Canvas & the emailed handouts
Staff Study Topics (examples)
Should the XYZ Police Department have its own air unit?

Implementing a Taser Excited Delirium training program

Creating a random drug testing program for police employees.

Implementing a DV lethality assessment protocol for response to DV incidents.

Staffing study for K9 unit.

Should XPD officers be outfitted with Narcan/Naloxone?

Utilizing UAVs in in-progress/hostile situations.

Cross training K9s

Implementation of a mandatory special assignment rotation policy.

Create an email retention policy which complies with state statute.
Staff Study Topics (Last Class)
Staff Study Topics (Last Class)
Development of a female officer recruiting program.

Implementation of extended range less lethal force options.

Development of a comprehensive plan for standardizing special events staffing.

Replacement strategy for APC.

Development and implementation of a body worn camera program.

Consolidation of the 911 communications center.

Development of a proactive and sustainable strategy to address officer suicide and enhance mental wellness.

Development of a minority recruiting program.

Development of a Crime Free Multi-Housing Program.

Creating and implementing a CIT Program.

Should the XYZ Police Department equip officers with Naloxone (Narcan)?

Create and implement a Mental Health Crisis Response Unit

Create and implement a Park Patrol Unit



Development and implemenation of a standardized duty weapon policy.

Development and implementation of a comprehensive hiring strategy to meet the staffing needs of the department.

Improving delivery of timely and relevant intelligence (Fusion Center) product to Nebraska agencies.

Development of a social media program to enhance public perception/improve information dissemination.

Development and implementation of a personally owned Taser purchase program.

Development and implementation of a formal meeting policy to improve organizational productivity and accountability.

Purchase and policy implementation of an unmanned aerial vehicle program.


Action Words
Welcome to Staff Studies
Survey Resources
https://www.wordstream.com/blog/ws/2014/11/10/best-online-survey-tools
**Assumptions help set boundaries**
Discussion Continued
(Headings/Subheadings)
Remember...
*Headings are
Left Justified,
Bolded and Underlined
(Problem, Assumptions, Facts, Discussion, Conclusion, Recommendation)

*Subheadings within your Discussion are
Left Justified & Italicized....NO BOLD/NO UNDERLINE
(You make these up...ie: Background, Technology, Best Practices/Academic Research, Benefits, Comparative Analysis, Possible Solutions)


Exercise:

Take 15 minutes to read the sample papers in the Canvas Staff Studies Module Student Guide
Second and subsequent lines for each entry are indented; add a space in between each individual entry.
REFER TO EXAMPLE PROBLEM SUMMARIES IN CANVAS STUDENT GUIDE

Things to note:
3 to 4 short paragraphs

1st paragraph is typically information with annexes about your police department and/or community

Middle paragraph(s) tend to outline the problem

Last paragraph tends to refer to what needs to be done and what will happen if no action is taken.
IACP Net
Refer to Canvas for login credentials
*Classroom exercise
THIS PRESENTATION BROUGHT TO YOU AND SPONSORED BY...
If you have to refer to two sets of numbers in the same sentence, one under ten and one over ten, then write them all out.
[Student] "Scott....

This is great and all....but....can I do a staff study on something that is being [or already has been] implemented at my agency? Or.....Can I do something on a topic that I turned in something similar already, but not in this exact format?"

[Scott] "Hmmmm....Let me think..."
Full transcript