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Nervous System

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Priscilla Kuruvila

on 20 February 2015

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Transcript of Nervous System

Input 1
Elias Conde
Priscilla Kuruvila
Vanessa Lisio
Luciana Lombardo
Patrick Osterwald

System effects on Homeostasis
Malfunctions
Brain
Spinal Cord
Sensory Organs
Cerebrum
Cerebellum
Medulla Oblongata
Located at the back of the skull
Coordinates and balances actions of muscles so that the body moves efficiently
Contains about 100 million neurons
Largest part of brain
Responsible for voluntary(conscious) activities of the body
Site of intelligence, learning, speech, emotion, etc.
Divided into 2 hemispheres: left and right
Left hemisphere controls right side of body and right hemisphere controls the left side of body
AKA the brain stem
Connects the brain and spinal cord
Controls blood pressure, heart rate, breathing, and swallowing (involuntary actions)
Sight (eyes), touch (hands), taste (tongue), smell (nose), hearing (ears)
All of the organs of the 5 senses are connected to the brain by nerve cells
nerve cells send signals to the brain when any of the organs come in contact with a stimulus and makes a response
(Ex. hand touches a hot oven -> nerve cells send to brain -> response is to take hand away from hot surface)
*A reflex is an involuntary action, which uses the nervous system. A relax starts off with receptors getting excited, they then send a sensory neuron to the spinal cord where the signals pass into a motor neuron, and that stimulates a muscle(s).
Ex; when your hand touches something extremely hot it will recoil away from the heat. Also shivering is a reflex, when your body senses it's cold you shiver to maintain a healthy body temperature.
Both of these processes help in homeostasis
is a bundle of nerves running down the middle of the backbone.
route for all nerve signals traveling between the brain and the body.
can actually work independently of the brain, sending out responses to the muscles directly.
The outside of the spinal cord is made of the long tails or axons of nerve cells and is called white matter; the inside is made of the main nerve bodies and is called grey matter.
Descending pathways are groups of nerves that carry nerve signals down the spinal cord – typically signals from the brain for muscles to move. Ascending pathways are groups of nerves that carry nerve signals up the spinal cord – typically signals from the skin and internal body sensors going to the brain.
STROKE
A stroke occurs when blood flow to the brain is interrupted. When a stroke occurs, brain cells in the immediate area begin to die because they stop getting the oxygen and nutrients they need to function.
The symptoms of stroke are distinct because they happen quickly:
•Sudden numbness or weakness of the face, arm, or leg (especially on one side of the body)
•Sudden confusion, trouble speaking or understanding speech
•Sudden trouble seeing in one or both eyes
•Sudden trouble walking, dizziness, loss of balance or coordination
•Sudden severe headache with no known cause
Getting treatment within 60 minutes can prevent disability.
The treatments depend on the type of stroke you have.
PARALYSIS
Paralysis is the loss of muscle movement in the body.
SYMPTOMS:
Loss of coordination on one or both sides of your body.
Confusion or loss of consciousness for even a brief moment.
Numbness
Inability to speak
Memory loss
Paralysis symptoms can occur anywhere in the body.
The Ayurveda treatments for paralysis include more natural treatments. Such as the use of herbs, anti-vata drugs which use certain foods as medicine and various techniques that involve oils, herbs, therapy and are used to expel the toxins from the body. These all directly help to clear the the channels of nervous coordination and help treat the paralytic condition.
THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
http://www.brainpop.com/health/bodysystems/nervoussystem/
http://www.brainpop.com/health/bodysystems/nervoussystem/
The network of nerve cells and fibers that transmits nerve impulses between parts of the body.
Main Organs
ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE
a progressive form of dementia that attacks the central nervous system
caused by neuron disfunction
most significant risk factor is AGE.
First Symptoms:
memory loss
impared speach and thought
difficulty with familiar tasks
confusion with time and place
poor judgement
unable to retrace steps
Currently there is no cure for Alzheimer's disease but medication, sensory therapy, and alternative medicine can help many symptoms.
PARKINSON'S


Parkinson's is a slowly progressive disorder that damages the brain cells and effects ones ability to preform smooth movements
The disease is common amoung middle aged and elderly people.
Symptoms:
frequent shaking
muscle rigity
slow impresice movement
lack of control over movement
poor balance and coordination
Curently there is no cure for Parkinson's disease.
Treatment includes medical and surgical therapy but, there is no standard or "best" treatment because the disease is different for every person.
TERMS TO KNOW
Nerves-
A whitish fiber or bundle of fibers that transmits impulses of sensation to the brain or spinal cord then to the muscles and organs
Neurotransmitters-
A chemical substance that is released at the end of a nerve fiber by the arrival of a nerve impulse
Synapse-
A junction between two nerve cells, consisting of a minute gap across which impulses pass by diffusion of a neurotransmitter
Neuron-
a cell that is specialized to conduct nerve impulses
Electrical impulse-
the insulation process that speeds communication among brain cells
Involuntary-
Concerned in bodily processes that are not under the control of the will
Voluntary-
Under the conscious control of the brain
Stimulus-
A thing or event that evokes a specific functional reaction in an organ or tissue
Reflex-
An action that is performed as a response to a stimulus
Response-
An excitation of a nerve impulse caused by a change or event; a physical reaction to a specific stimulus or situation
Sensory receptor-
neuron that detects a stimulus such as touch, pain, temperature, pressure, light, sound, taste, etc...and then reacts to this stimuli by sending impulses to other neurons
Effector-
An organ or cell that acts in response to a stimulus
Sensory Neuron
Receptor
Spinal Cord/Brain
Interneuron
Motorneuron
Stimulus: Pin
Effector (muscle)
Neuron
Axon: The long threadlike part of a nerve cell along which impulses are conducted from the cell.
Dendrites: A short branched extension of a nerve cell, along which impulses received from other cells at synapses are transmitted to the cell body.
Cell Body: the command center of the neuron that makes decisions about whether or not to send electrical impulses to other neurons
Nucleus: Spherical DNA-containing structure of the cell body
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