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Transcript of Chinese Revolution
Revolution of 1911, though regarded as the birth of modern China was really only the first in a series of revolutions that were needed to establish a republic on decidedly foundations. Victory in this initial revolution, which came with the abdication of the last Manchu emperor in Feb of 1912, was secured only after a compromise with Military strongman Yuan Shikai
Once the dynasty had been overthrown, the traditional link between the provinces and Peking was cut. The new Republic was weak and could not establish centralized political power over all China. Consequently, the local-provincial scholar-gentry fell back on local and provincial, not national, affairs. The growth of national consciousness was therefore slowed down. Seen from this angle, the 1911 Revolution worsened the problem of political decentralization of the late Ch'ing period. Moreover, foot binding, a custom that probably originated inthe Song dynasty, became exceptionally popular during the late Ming and Qing dynasties.
In the Nineteenth Century, the Qing Empire faced a number of challenges to its rule, including a number of foreign incursions into Chinese territory.
The Beijing government decided to take over from a local company a line in Sichuan, on which construction had been barely begun, and to apply part of the loan to its completion. The sum offered did not meet the demands of the stockholders, and in September 1911 the dissatisfaction boiled over into open revolt. a mutiny broke out among the troops in Wuchang, and this is regarded as the formal beginning of the revolution.
The causes of the first Chinese revolution were that European countries had a lot of control over China and China was not a powerful country even though it had one of the largest population bases. In the Nineteenth Century, the Qing Empire faced a number of challenges to its rule, including a number of foreign incursions into Chinese territory.
The 1911 Chinese Revolution overthrew the Qing Dynasty
Violence: The Wuchang Uprising breaks out, and turned into a nationalist revolt. The Qing withdrawal resulted in the rise of warlords. The republic of China was created, as Sun Yat-sen was elected as provisional president.
Economic Crisis: Cultivable land was concentrated in powerful landlords, the people were forbidden by law to move to Manchuria and other places outside China and there was no large industrial development to absorb the excessive manpower and to raise the standard of living society. More people meant greater social poverty.
Convalescence (Recovery)/ Moderate Stage
The Imperial dynastic rule in China was brought to an end (the overthrow of the Qing dynasty). After the Qing emperor retired, the rebels chose a general Yuan Shikai (16 September 1859- 6 June 1916), as leader, while Sun Yat Sen was declared president of a provisional (temporary) republic on January 1, 1916. A new government was created with a Senate and a Lower House, which was supposed to write a new constitution. Sun Yat Sen's party, the Guomindang were the largest after the election, but they weren't the majority. So Sun Yat Sen yield to Yuan Shikai which then outlawed the Guomindang party and ruled as a dictator. Yuan Shikai died in 1916, in result China's first non-dynastic government in over 3,000 years completely fell apart. Localism reasserted itself with wide reaching landlords and small scale armies ruling all the parts of China that weren't controlled by foreigners. The Chinese Revolution of 1911 was only the beginning of the Chinese Communism Revolution of 1928-1949.
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Photograph of Revolutionaries in Shanghai
Foot Binding to show social class
In China, Chinese parents preferred boys over girls. Boys had the opportunities that gitls never had, they could become a government official, and thereby bting honor and financial reward to the entire clan, parents regarded a girl as a social and financial liability. When most girls married and became members of other households, it was not surprising that life was precarious for newborn girls, who were the primary victims of infanticide.
Privileged Classes: Because of their official positions, the scholar-bureaucrats ranked slightly above gentry.
Working Classes: Confucian principles regarded peasants as the most honorable of the three classes (peasants, artisans/workers, and merchants. Encompassed a wide spectrum of occupations.
Merchants: Ranked at the bottom level of the Confucian social hierarchy. Merchants enjoyed little legal protection.
Lower Classes: Confucian moralists regarded armed forces as a wretched but necessary evil and attempted to avoid military dominance of society by placing civilian bureaucrats in the highest command positions, even at the expense of military effectiveness.
Sun Yat-Sen ( 1866-1925)
Sun founded the Kuomintang, or Chinese Nationalist Party, and led the Republican Revolution of 1911.
He is honored by both the Communists and the Nationalists as the founder of the Chinese republic.
In the Three Principles of the People (nationalism, democracy, people’s livelihood), Sun attempted to formulate a plan for China’s national development.
His headstrong, impulsive nature led him into many foolhardy, unprofitable adventures. Nevertheless, most Chinese believe him to be the greatest person of China’s twentieth century.
He symbolizes honesty, sincerity, and idealism.
His writings have exerted enormous influence in China. In spite of his personal and political shortcomings, he epitomizes China’s long struggle to become a modern nation.
Was a leading Qing general, arguably the dynasty's most successful military commander.
He was also the man who single-handedly brought about the end of the Qing.
Shikai promised a commitment to the revolution and the republic -but in reality he was a political opportunist driven by his own ambition.
Shikai's actions sabotaged Chinese republicanism before it could mature.
In March 1912 he was named first president of the Chinese Republic.
After his death, China slipped into twelve years of war and revolution