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Mao Tse Tung
Transcript of Mao Tse Tung
DOWNFALL Mao's downfall was primarily started with the implementation of his second five year plan known as the Great Leap Forward.
The Great Leap Forward was set to take place between 1958 and 1963.
The plan was set to develop agriculture and industry.
Mao believed that industry could not grow without agriculture and vise versa.
To allow this development, china was reformed into communes.
On average, about 5000 families lived in the communes
People in the communes had to give up all their possessions and everything belonged to the commune.
Shooling and healthcare was also provided by the commune
The elderly were placed in "houses of happyness" so that people wouldnt have to worry about taking care of them.
Communes provided everything that a community needed.
this included entertainment, and food.
Communes had subdivisions of teams and brigades.
12 families formed a team, 12 teams formed a brigade.
soldiers and people worked along side each other in teams. HISTORICAL CONTEXT Long long ago, in a galaxy far far away... The biggest event that marked Mao’s early life and China before his rule was the Xinhai Revolution (1911). This was a series of great political upheavals in China between 1911 and 1949. By this time the Opium War, Second Anglo-Chinese War, and Boxer Rebellion of 1900 had taken place, therefore the Chinese were determined to expel foreign influence and take control of the government and economy. "Communism is not love. Communism is the hammer which we use to crush the enemy." After the imperial Manchu dynasty was overthrown in 1912, the Nationalists (aka Guomindang) were challenged by the growing communist movement. This started the Chinese Cival War (1927). Mao emerged as a communist leader during the Long March to northwest China (1934-1935); this was an attempt to escape Guomindang harassment. PATH TO POWER Mao rose to power in 1949 when the Chinese Revolution was resolved. His reliance on the peasantry and dependence on guerrilla warfare in the revolution were essential to the Communist triumph in China. Using these tactics he was able to win the revolution and rise to power. In 1926 Mao was nominated as director of the Peasant Commissions for both parties as he became more and more involved with them. Mao later became convinced that the peasants would be the main force in a revolution. This idea was rejected as it would cause alienation in the KMT. During the long march, Japan invaded China forcing the CCP and KMT to ally again to protect China. It was during the long march that the Red Army came under Mao’s control. After the KMT were finally defeated in 1949 Mao founded the People’s Republic of China and became chairman. He then directed the reconstruction of China following the example of Stalin and the USSR. Mao launched massive campaigns to expose counter revolutionaries. A lot of Chinese citizens were also imprisoned, tortured, exiled, or executed in the Three Antis/Five Antis Campaigns, the anti-Rightist Campaign, the Movement Against Right Opportunism, and other movements and campaigns. The Red Guard was also formed in order to put down any one who opposed Mao. During the march there was a power struggle between Mao and Jiang Guo T’ao which split the forces. Mao and his troops formed the basis of the Red Army in China. The Red Army defeated the nationalists in 1946 in Huai-Hai and in Nanjing in 1949. With these victories Mao won the cival war and Communist China rule took over under Mao. Also, the People’s Republic of China was established (1949). In 1921 the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) was established by Mao and ten other men. The CCP later allied with the Kuomingtang (KMT), the largest revolutionary group in China at the time, as advised by Stalin; Mao admired Stalin and followed his example as he too turned China to a communist country. In late 1927 Chiang Kai-Shek took control of the KMT and began purges against communists. The two parties split declaring war on each other. Mao thus formed the read army, made up of peasants, which was extremely successful against Chiang’s forces using new guerilla warfare tactics. The leaders of the CCP tried to take Mao’s power many times, but they relied on him too much as he proved to be a very essential member of the party. In 1929 an anti-Bolshevik league known as the AB-tuan infiltrated the Red Army. In order to flush the AB-tuan out, tens of thousands of men were interrogated, tortured, and killed in purges; Mao became a key figure in these purges. Structure and Philosophy of Government Economic Policies When Mao took over China, its economy was bankrupt, and its communications, transportation, education and banking systems were destroyed. Five Year Programs: Adopted a Soviet-like approach to solve these problems. The main objectives were to have a high rate of economic growth with an emphasis on industrial developments at the expense of agriculture. These plans were formulated with the help of the Soviets. First Five Year Program and Second Five Year Program: the first Five Year Program (1953-1957) saw an increase in government control over industry; by 1956, no private firms existed: all were either state-owned or joint (publically-privately) owned. In terms of economic growth, it was successful. The Second Five Year Program (1958-1962), mostly known for the Great Leap Forward program (1958-1961) and the Great Sparrow Campaign, was not so successful. Its purpose was to expand on what had been done during the first plan. Great Leap Forward: with the Great Leap Forward, the plan aimed to improve the economy through parallel, rapid development in agriculture and industry. It emphasized on decentralized, labor-intensive industrialization.
Included in the Great Leap Forward was the Great Sparrow Campaign, which aimed to remove sparrows, along with rats, flies, and mosquitoes, to improve agriculture. The plan worked for a while at first; however, once the sparrow population decreased, the locust population increases, causing more harm to agriculture and the destruction of crops.
This plan was characterized by unrealistic planning, poorly planned communization of agriculture, and poor harvests. This plan ended in China’s great famine.
Social Policies This is propaganda used during the
Great Leap Forward and the Great
Sparrow Campaign. The sparrow one
shows children with slingshots killing
sparrows to improve agriculture. The Hundred Flowers Campaign (1956-1957): Its main objective was to encourage intellectuals to voice their opinion and complaints about the party in order to make China a “true socialist society.” Once complaints began to worsen, Mao ordered a halt to the campaign and the issued a statement that said it was all an anti-rightist campaign. Another social policy that had more harsh effects than the Hundred Flowers Campaign was the Cultural Revolution (1966-1976). It was a decade of relentless social upheaval. This was a result if a power struggle between Mao Zedong and Liu Shaoqi.
In order to prevent the development of a bureaucratized Soviet style of Communism, Mao Zedong called for a halt in education to recruit students into the Red Guard. Eventually, tensions increased within and the Red Guard split into factions. Not only a cultural event, the Revolution also disrupted economic development (12% decrease in production) and education.
Education Policies Like mentioned before, under Mao, China’s education declined greatly. This was due to the persecution of intellectuals, the abandonment of school by students in favor of the Red Guard, mass relocations, book burnings, and other similar actions. Religion Once Mao came into power and established Communism, many first saw it as a belief more than an ideology, thus adopting it as their religion. Similar to any other religion, Communism was full of texts, taken from Russia and then translated, that were revered. Role of Women Mao Zedong viewed women as equal and were to be treated as such in China during his reign. "In order to build a great socialist society it is of the utmost importance to arouse the broad masses of women to join in productive activity. Men and women must receive equal pay for equal work in production. Genuine equality between the sexes can only be realized in the process of the socialist transformation of society as a whole" - Mao Zedong, 1955 By 1958 700 million people had been placed into 26,578 communes. The government did everything possible to keep the people working.
Propoganda was everywhere, workers would listen to political speeches as they worked, workers had to make use of whatever tools they had if they lacked machinery.
Buildings were built in record time, but their quality is debateable. Back yard production was established, people were encouraged to build furnaces in their backyard and contribute to the steel production of china 1959: PROBLEMS AHEAD By 1959, political leaders started to demand more than communes could produce.
If commune leaders failed to produce enough, or stated that they were uncapable of such work, they could be thrown in prison.
Steel produced in back yard furnaces was much too weak to use in construction, which was its original purpose.
People were too busy working in construction and in their furnaces that food was not being harvested and food was scarce.
Machinery was poorly constructed and was unreliable, sometimes it would fall apart upon use.
So much coal was used to power the furnaces that the railroads suffered Aside from poor political decisions and production, climate also slapped china in the face.
1959's grain harvest was only 170 million tons, well below necessary
1960's was also below at only 144 million tons. 9 million people are said to have starved that year .
Parts of china were hit with floods while other parts were hit with droughts For these failures, Mao blamed himself, but he not only blamed his party members.
Some party members made him resign and left the leadership of china into 3 men: Liu Shaoqi, Zhou Enlai and Deng Xiaoping.
Although these three new leaders took some power from Mao, mao was still the rightful leader in the eyes of his people.
He would use his popularity to fuel the cultural revolution. THE CULTURAL REVOLUTION The cultural revolution lasted from 1966 to 1976.
Cultural revolution was started by Mao and Jiang Qing.
In 1966 mao organized the Red Guard, the Red Guard were students who were trained to spread the ideology of socialism around the country.
The Red Guard was also to criticize anyone who was seen to have
Ideology and Platform In Russia, Lenin did not believe in the strength of the peasants. He thought that the revolution was with the working class. Mao did not share the same kind of ideology. Since most of China was composed of peasants during this time, he thought that the revolution was to rely heavily on them.
•Mao strongly believed in selfless dedication to the common good and strong commitment to ideal social behavior. This meant that if you didn't follow HIS ideal society, you would be labeled an enemy to the revolution.
•When the Communist Party of China was created, they established themselves as “the Vanguard of the Chinese working class.”
Totalitarian? Attracting Support •Mao had a peasant background so he instantly had a connection with most of China.
•The military that he organized was influenced by him with revolutionary ideas.
•This new force was used to fight the KMT, who were defeated.
•When Mao took official control of China, he claimed it as a victory for the Chinese People.
Opposition •Mao decided that he allowed room for criticism of the national government. He called it the Hundred Flowers Campaign.
• There was more criticism than Mao had anticipated so he rescinded the policy. When he did so, he persecuted people that spoke out against the communist government.
•It wasn’t just communists that were speaking out against it, but school children.
•Mao portrayed the United States as an enemy to the people of China.
•Mao portrayed the United States as an enemy to the people of China Repression of opponents •Almost 500,000 people were persecuted as a result of the Hundred Flowers Campaign.
•His other campaign, Campaign to Suppress Counter-Revolutionaries, claimed the lives of about 800,000 people.
•His Land Reform program, which gave land to the peasants, cost about one million landlords their lives.
Government Control Other than Propaganda, Mao's greatest tool for
controlling the people was fear. With only one exception to his entire reign, the people of China had to be cautious of what they said.
Dissidents were publically executed to made an example of.
People accused of being counter-revolutionary were also tortured and executed in private.
Mass meetings would be held to make examples out of
people who were accused of defying the state.
People began to report on one another to as a result. (Wives turned on their husbands, children reported on their parents, etc.)
The Red Guard got so out of hand, that they ended up burning the British embacy.
Even after Mao had expressed his regret for the actions of the Red Guard, the gang of four continued to spread ideology.
The gang of four consisted of: Wang Hongwen, Yao Wenyuan, and Zhang Chunqiao, and their leader Jiang Qing.
After Mao's death, the gang of four tried to obtain power, but instead were imprisoned and given upto life sentences
Mao's Death. Mao passed away on September 9, 1976.
He suffered a heart attack on september 2nd and was finally put to rest on september 9. In Loving memory of Mao December 26, 1893 – September 9, 1976 Althoug Mao was born a peasant, his family was well off enough to send him to school where he trained in the Chinese clsassics of Confucianism. Mao eventually graduated form the Hunan Teachers College in Changsha. Afterward, he went to Beijing and worked at the University under the head librarian, Li Dazhao, whom he joined in studying Marxism. It wasnt until 1920 that Mao converted to Marxism. Legacy mao's legacy includes accredidation for advancing social and economic developments in china.
He brought up chinas literacy percentage, and the population grew by 57%
Mao is regarded as a national hero despite his methods used in power, the chinese people feel that he made china into a competitive super power and brought it out of its "century of himiliation" from the western nations