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English Persuasion and Argument

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Amanda Fendel

on 17 March 2013

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Transcript of English Persuasion and Argument

Purpose Audience Strategies: Evidence The Emotional Appeal Writers must know who their audience will be to choose effective rhetorical strategies. Usually the audience will fit into one of four classes. Collecting Evidence: Facts, Judgement, and Testimony Strategies:
Monitoring the Appeals Persuasion & Argument Essays support a cause
make a commitment
take action
change a situation
change behavior
change attitude
refute a theory
arouse sympathies
stimulate concern
win agreement
provoke anger
Argument depends on logical explanations that appeal to intelligence. Persuasion depends on strong emotions that appeal to feelings and instincts. Persuasion vs Argument An effective essay balances emotions and logic according to their purpose and audience. Examples:
Political Writing Examples:
Scientific Writing
Grant Proposals Persuade the reader to: 1. Readers who already agree with the writer and are reading for reinforcement or encouragement. 2. Readers who are likely to agree with the writer, but want to know more information. 3. Readers who are neutral on an issue and want explanations based on logic and evidence before they decide. 4. Readers who are skeptical about an issue and want each side of the issue explained in complete detail before they make a decision. Facts are valuable because they cannot debated.
Judgments are valuable because they result from reasoning.
Testimonies are valuable because they affirm facts.
Arranging Evidence: Induction, Deduction, Claims and Warrants, and Accommodation Induction is the scientific method which begins with presenting specific information and moving to a general conclusion.
Deduction is classical reasoning which begins with a general statement that when restricted by a minor premise leads to a specific conclusion.
Claims and Warrants begins by asserting a claim then providing evidence to support your claim. The statement that links the claim to the evidence is the warrant.
Accommodation begins by arranging evidence so that all parties believe their position has received a fair hearing. The Ethical Appeal The Logical Appeal Relies on the reader's feelings, instincts, and opinions of readers. Dramatic examples personalize a problem and produce powerful emotions. It should be used with care because controversial issues attract a range of emotions. It shows the Writer is someone that can be trusted. The writer needs to balance their own experience with the experience of authorities in their subject field. The writer acknowledges that the arguments are conducted in probability not certainty. It establishes a relationship that binds your evidence, engages the readers' reasoning powers, and appeals to their intelligence. Points to Remember 1. Know your audience and what you want to persuade them to do.

2. Appeal to reason and emotion and appeal from integrity and character. The best writers combine all types of appeal.

3. State your claim and back it up with evidence and support.

4. Avoid sounding superior to your audience. Assume your audience is intelligent, but uninformed on some issues.

5. Do not over simplify complex issues and do not overstate your claim.
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