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Copy of 21st century skills

Re:publica, 9 May 2013 Andreas Schleicher

Max Woodtli

on 10 September 2013

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Transcript of Copy of 21st century skills

Learning in the 21st century
Living in the world
Ways of thinking
Ways of working
21st century skills
Life and careers
Personal and social responsibility
Creativity, critical thinking, problem-solving, decision-making and learning
Communication and collaboration
Tools for working
Information literacy, technology
21st century learning environments
to every student without overloading

Acutely sensitive to individual

Ensure learning is social and

Make learning central, encourage
Be the place where students come to
understand themselves

School leaders also played a key role in integrating external and internal accountability systems by supporting their teaching staff in aligning instruction with agreed learning goals and performance standards

To evaluate school performance, two-thirds of OECD countries have regulations that require lower secondary schools to be inspected regularly where leaders are held accountable for their use of public funding and for the structures and processes they establish
PISA shows that, on average now 84% of students are enrolled in schools that have full autonomy in deciding how their budgets are spent, and 57% are in schools that are fully autonomous in formulating their budgets
School leaders develop networks and share their tasks with vice-principals or co-principals, deputy principals, assistant principals, vocational/technical department heads, workshop managers and/or co-coordinators and teachers with special duties. Leadership structures or more informal ad hoc groups based on expertise and current needs are formed to encourage a distribution of responsibilities
Continual assessment with formative

across subjects and activities and beyond school

Teachers need to be well-versed in the
they teach in order to be adept at using different methods and, if necessary, changing their approaches to optimize learning
Teachers need a rich repertoire of
teaching strategies
, the ability to combine approaches, and the knowledge of how and when to use certain methods and strategies.
Teachers need to have a deep
understanding of how learning happens,
and and strengthen student initiative and create skills
Teachers need to be able to work in highly
ways, working with other teachers and professionals or para-professionals within the same organization, or with others in other organizations, in networks of professional communities and in different partnership arrangements, including, for some, mentoring teachers
Teachers need the space to
design, lead, manage and plan learning environments
in collaboration with others
Teachers need to
on their practices in order to learn from their experience

21st century teachers

The strategies used should include direct, whole-group teaching, guided discovery, group work, and the facilitation of self-study and individual discovery.
Understanding learning to improve teaching
Given the
that accompany change, education stakeholders tend to value the
status quo
. Systems need to become better at communicating and building support for change.
Challenges and opportunities for education
Many Japanese students still struggle with open-ended tasks requiring students to creatively integrate knowledge...
Teachers need to acquire strong
technology skills
and skills to use technology as effective teaching tools, both to optimize the use of digital resources in their teaching and to use information-management systems to track student learning
Singapore’s Future Schools, encourage innovation and enterprise in teaching practice and flexible learning environments with special emphasis on using technology
In Singapore, teachers are encouraged to be lifelong learners and are part of professional learning communities in which teachers can learn from each other and improve their practice
In Finland, teachers’ time is matched to students’ needs – and this isn’t always class time
Sweden introduced curriculum-embedded assessments that avoid the pitfalls of teacher-designed assessments. The are available 'on demand' and designed, administered and scored locally
The Le@rning Federation is a major digital content project for schools in New Zealand and Australia
Finland’s highly-educated teaching workforce receives a solid base of education theory and is able to apply that to their practice as student teachers, with the support of mentors and team teachers
...but over the last decade Japan has seen the
greatest improvement
in PISA in this area among all high-performing nations.
Finland has made teaching one of the most sought-after occupations by raising entry standards and giving teachers a high degree of professional responsibility
Email: Andreas.Schleicher@OECD.org
Thank you!
Find out more about our work at:
...and remember: Without data, you are just another person with an opinion
School leaders continually challenge staff

...How do we know that?...
...Could we test another way of doing it?...
...What do we know about how people in other schools do it?...
Ontario's leadership strategy
In Shanghai, the Empowered Administration initiative pairs retired school leaders and teachers with struggling schools to provide administrative and pedagogical guidance
Berlin, 9 May 2013
but education doesn't automatically
translate into better outcomes

because skills have an increasing impact on labour market outcomes and social participation

because failure to ensure a good skills match has both short- term consequences (skills shortages) and longer-term effects on economic growth and equality of opportunities
what skills
drive economic and social outcomes
Governments build strong skills systems and effective partnerships with
key stakeholders to find sustainable approaches to
who should
pay for what, when and where
the right mix of skills in effective, equitable and efficient ways
Economies and labour-markets fully
their skill potential

Success with converting skills into jobs and growth depends on whether...
...Skills change lives...
...and drive economies
Skills have become the currency
of 21st century societies
PISA 2006 - 2009
Fostering demand-sensitive and
relevant learning
involving employers

Compared to purely government-designed curricula taught in exclusively school-based systems, learning in the workplace offers important advantages
Fostering lifelong
skills-oriented learning
instead of
qualifications-focused education
upfront in life course

The kind of things that are easy to test and teach
are disappearing fastest
Learning a place



Bureaucratic look-upwards


Public vs. private

Delivered wisdom



Culture as obstacle

Learning an activity


Informed profession

Devolved-look outwards


Public with private

User-generated wisdom

Embracing diversity


Culture as capital

PISA Learning Outcomes (15-year-olds)
Source: Autor, Levy Murnane
In conclusion
Successful reforms tend to involve significant investment in staff development, or clustering reforms to build up support for them in related institutions.
Teacher engagement also requires consistent, co-ordinate efforts to persuade those affected of the need for reform and, in particular, to communicate the costs of non-reform. This may be particularly challenging when the opportunity costs of maintaining the status quo are less apparent than the costs of change.
Policy makers need to build consensus on the aims of education reform and actively engage stakeholders, especially teachers, in formulating and implementing policy responses.
Some reforms capitalize on external pressures or crises as part of building a compelling case for change.
All political players and stakeholders need to develop more realistic expectations about the pace and nature of reforms to improve outcomes.
Reforms need to be backed by sustainable financing.
There is some shift away from reform initiatives per se towards building self-adjusting systems with rich feedback at all levels, incentives to react, and tools to strengthen capacities to deliver better outcomes.
Investment is needed in change-management skills
Evidence needs to feed back to institutions along with tools with which they can use the information
Making reforms work
21st century reforms and labour relations
Teachers need to be
active agents
, not just in the
implementation of reforms, but also in their
Reform must be underpinned by
solid research and analysis
can involve conversations both within
national professional bodies and among local groups of professionals
between unions and reform has best been avoided not where unions are weak but where they are strong and co-operate with reform
The better a country’s education system performs, the more likely that country is working constructively with its unions and treating its teachers as trusted professional partners
Governments and unions need to develop their research capacities.
There is need for better links between union researchers and their counterparts in ministries and those in independent research institutes and universities.
Socio-economic challenges
Growing knowledge intensity
Most countries try hard
Different skills
Beyond math and science
Innovation and knowledge inspired by
and evaluation)
Innovation inspired through
entrepreneurial development
of new products and services
Innovation and knowledge inspired by
(teachers, school heads)
Innovation inspired by

(students, parents, communities)
OECD countries spend 15 times more on
than on
The UK's Sinnott Fellowship funds the work of outstanding teachers who create innovative links between the school and the community to improve student aspirations and outcomes
New Zealands Best Evidence Synthesis Programme is a government brokerage agency through which effective R&D has leveraged effective classroom practice for diverse learners
email: Andreas.Schleicher@OECD.org
Thank you!
Find out more about our work at:
...and remember: Without data, you are just another person with an opinion
health research
education research
In conclusion
Twitter: SchleicherEDU
Full transcript