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History Of Railways
Transcript of History Of Railways
ocking and vacuum brakes after the Armagh disaster in 1889 to stronger couplings and safer coaches following the Clapham crash a century later has been introduced as a result of past failures. Most recently, the adoption of the Train Protection & Warning System (TPWS) that has greatly reduced the number of Signals Passed at Danger (SPADs) and vastly improved methods of detecting potential broken rails have been adopted largely as a result of the series of accidents in the aftermath of privatisation. How Safety Improved In the 19th century Britain became the world's first industrial society. It also became the first urban society. By 1851 more than half the population lived in towns.
The population of Britain boomed during the 19th century. In 1801 it was about 9 million. By 1901 it had risen to about 41 million.
This was despite the fact that many people emigrated to North America and Australia to escape poverty. About 15 million people left Britain between 1815 and 1914. How It Changed People's Lives Why were people opposed To The
Building Of Railways Engineers may have designed the railways, but it was left to vast gangs of navvies to build them – the word ‘navvy’ came from the ‘navigators’ who built the first ‘
navigation canals’ in the eighteenth century.
By 1850 a quarter of a million workers – a force bigger than the Army and Royal Navy put together – had laid down 3,000 miles of railway line across Britain.
By the standards of the day they were well paid, but their work was hard and often very dangerous.
They built a reputation for fighting, hard living and hard drinking. ‘Respectable’ Victorians viewed them as degenerate.
The railway navvies soon came to form a distinct group, set apart by the special nature of their work. They were assembled in huge armies of workers, men and women
from all parts of the British Isles and even continental Europe. Many were fleeing famine in Ireland, and some were the ancestors of the 15,000 travellers who live in Britain today.
Tramping from job to job, navvies and their families lived and worked in appalling conditions, often for years on end, in rough timber and turf huts alongside the bridges,
tunnels and cuttings that they built. In the 1840s there was no compensation for death or injury, and railway engineers like Brunel resisted all efforts to provide their workers with a
dequate housing and sanitation, or safe working conditions. How were Railway Lines Built When Were The First
Railways Made History Of Railways By Danny Although the idea of running freight carts in tracks carved into rock dates back at least as far as ancient Greece and wooden-railed wagonways originated in Germany in the 16th century, the first use of steam locomotives was in Britain. The earliest "railways" were straight and were constructed from parallel rails of timber on which ran horse-drawn carts. These were succeeded in 1793 when Benjamin Outram constructed a mile-long tramway with L-shaped cast iron rails. These rails became obsolete when William Jessop began to manufacture cast iron rails without guiding ledges - the wheels of the carts had flanges instead. Cast iron is brittle and so the rails tended to break easily. Consequently, in 1820, John Birkenshaw introduced a method of rolling wrought iron rails, which were used from then onwards.The first passenger-carrying public railway was opened by the Oystermouth Railway in 1807, using horse drawn carriages on an existing tramlineIn 1804, Richard Trevithick designed and built the first (unnamed) steam locomotive to run on smooth rails Parliament welcomed railways as competition for roads and canals, but allowed piecemeal development because it was reluctant to interfere: laissez-faire. Eventually the government was forced to do something to regulate the railways. Why were They Created The railway system of Great Britain, the principal territory of the United Kingdom, is the oldest in the world. The system was originally built as a patchwork of local rail links operated by small private railway companies. These isolated links developed during the railway boom of the 1840s into a national network, although still run by dozens of competing companies. Over the course of the 19th and early 20th centuries, these amalgamated or were bought by competitors until only a handful of larger companies remained (see railway mania). The entire network was brought under government control during the First World War and a number of advantages of amalgamation andplanning were revealed. The very first steam locomotive that was built in 1784 by the Scotish inventor, William Murdoch Navvies using a brickmaking machine
during the construction of the
Midland Railway's extension to
St Pancras station 1865.
Credit: National Railway Museum Acts of Parliament were necessary to build the railways. Many people fought against the expansion of the railways, particularly those whose businesses were threatened by them. Roads and canals suffered a decline in using them to transport goods as these were both slower and more expensive. They were also less reliable, especially in winter, when freezing conditions could make roads or canals altogether impassable. Others feared losing their land. On the left a train crew are ready to take
almost one thousand people from Newcastle to London. Armagh disaster in 1889 Pictures