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History of Schools in the United States
Transcript of History of Schools in the United States
The New England Primer Lord's Prayer
The Ten Commandments
Books of the Bible
Memorize the book's catechism - questions and answers about the Protestant faith
Early 1800's charity schools and reformatories were established to combat the "lawlessness" of the low-income families 1819 - Civilization Act
Culturally transform the Native population to the Anglo culture
Focused on the southern tribes
Established tribal schools with missionary teachers
1821 - Boston establishes the first high school 1823 - First teacher institute established in Connecticut by Emma Willard and Henry Barnard 1830 - Indian Removal Act 1830s to 1840s - Horace Mann - concerned with the divisions between social classes saw mixing the classes in a common school as a way to ease the tensions 1830s and 1840s Catholics did not feel welcome in common schools
Demanded public funds for separate schools 1837 - Mann became the first secretary of the MA Board of Education 1839 - Normal Schools were established in Lexington, MA to prepare teachers for elementary school 1842 - New York Riot over the establishment of Catholic schools 1843 - Riots in Philadelphia erupted over Catholics being excused from readings from the Protestant Bible 1848 - Native tribes removed to OK started their own tribal schools with Choctaw teachers 1848 - Quincy School established in Boston
First school based on grade levels
Teachers had their own separate classroom
Each student had a desk
56 students per classroom
1853 - Susan B Anthony became the first woman to speak at the national teacher's convention 1855 - all Boston schools were organized by grade 1855 - US Supreme Court ruled that Chinese are not white and not eligible for citizenship Textbooks and spellers written by Noah Webster 1865 - John W Alvord was appointed the national superintendent of schools for the Freedman's Bureau 1867 - Henry Barnard became the first commissioner of education 1867 - Indian Peace Commission said Native Americans could become citizens if they converted to Christianity 1879 - Carlisle Indian School established in Carlisle, PA 1892 - NEA formed the Committee of Ten on Secondary School Studies 1873 - First public Kindergarten established in St Louis 1881 - Booker T. Washington established the Tuskegee Normal and Intustrial Institute 1896 - John Dewey opened laboratory school in Chicago Textbooks were The McGuffey Readers by William Holmes McGuffey
Moral lessons for an industrial society
Characters were male
More secular, but included religious selections as well
Emphasized the importance of charity
1897 - Courts in TX ruled that Mexican Americans were not white. Therefore they attended segregated schools where they were not allowed to speak Spanish. 1975 - Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act - gave tribes the right to operate their own schools 1974 - Lau v Nichols won the right for instruction in their first language 1968 - Title Vii of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act provided support for bilingual programs in Indian languages and English 1964 - Economic Opportunity Act established Head Start 1960s - Civil Rights movement demanded the inclusion of different cultures in curriculum 1958 - National Defense Education Act
Supported nationwide testing of high school students
Incentives for them to pursue scientific and professional studies.
Funds to improve teaching of science, mathematics and foreign language
Funds to purchase equipment and materials
1957 - October 4 launch of the Russian satellite, Sputnik I drove the government to improve education 1954 - Supreme court ruled that the "separate but equal" policy has no place in public education 1950s - Middle Schools were established 1943 Chinese Exclusion Act repealed, allowing Chinese Immigrants the right to become naturalized citizens 1940 - Mendez v. Westminster required a Hispanic girl to attend a white school in CA 1930s -- The Great Depression pushed children out of the workforce and into high schools and raised compulsory age from 14 to 16 1930s - TX schools were allowed to continue segregated schools for Mexican Americans 1918 - TX made it a criminal offense to teach in any language other than English (laws not repealed until the 1970s) 1913 - Edward Thorndike publishes Educational Psychology
Advocated rewards and punishments
Promoted testing as a way to determine which students were suited for which social roles 1910 - First junior high schools established because elementary schools were becoming overcrowded with influx of immigrant children and with children who didn't pass to the next grade 1905 - Chinese Americans began being admitted to San Francisco public schools