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Post WWII Lecture

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Tasia Cox

on 17 May 2016

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Transcript of Post WWII Lecture

Justice is Delivered!
US vs. Russia Standoff
Aiming to keep world peace
The Nuremberg Trials
Establishing the United Nations
The Cold War Begins
Cold War – a state of tension and hostility between nations aligned with the United States on one side and the Soviet Union on the other, without armed conflict between the two.

Monday, May 16th, 2016
Vol XCIII, No. 311
The War's Aftermath
Cold War Tensions
Stalin vs. Truman
Stalin was upset that the United States did not consult the Soviets when making peace agreements with Japan and Italy.

U.S. President Truman demanded that there be free elections in the Eastern European countries. Stalin refused to allow this.

Post WWII Lecture
Europe Celebrates V-E Day!
Destruction of the War
The Nuremberg Trials
Nuremberg Trials - top Nazi officers and others were tried for war crimes in the German city of Nuremberg.

Although many Nazis were not brought to trial here, it showed that political and military leaders could be held responsible for their actions.

The war crimes trials also discredited totalitarian regimes that led to war.

Establishing the United Nations
In April 1945, delegates from 50 nations met to draft a charter for the United Nations.

United Nations - group of many nations formed to play a significant role in world affairs with the idea of keeping peace.

Facets of the United Nations included:
- a smaller body within called the Security
Council. They would have the right to veto
any decision made.

Establishing the United Nations
The Security Council membership includes:
1. United States
2. Soviet Union (today Russia)
3. Great Britain
4. France
5. China
The Security Council has the ability to apply economic sanctions or send a peace-keeping military force to try to resolve disputes.

What the UN Does:
The U.N. can also take measures to stop the outbreak of disease.

They can protect refugees.
The UN Also:
provides food in undernourished countries
provides economic assistance in developing countries
Stalin Had Two Goals in Mind:
1) To spread Communism
2) Create a buffer zone of friendly governments as a defense against Germany. The Soviet Red Army stayed behind in Eastern Europe as an occupying force.

Truman Makes a Move
The Truman Doctrine:
It was an American foreign policy created to counter Soviet goals to spread Communism during the Cold War.
It was defined a belief that the U.S. should support people who desire freedom in their countries from outside forces attempting to subjugate them or turn them into communists.

Stalin's Goa
Goal of Truman Doctrine
In other words, Truman was attempting to contain or limit communism in Eastern Europe
Truman Makes Another Move:
The Marshall Plan:
The U.S. sent food and economic assistance to European nations devastated by the war. Over time, the U.S. spent billions of dollars with this plan.
Part of the attempt here was to strengthen democratic governments and limit the possibilities of them turning communist.
Germany After the War:
Germany Gets Carved Up
The U.S., Great Britain, and France decided to unite the occupying forces in Germany.
Instead of making the western part of Germany pay reparations, they used the Marshall Plan and other means to help rebuild the economy.

The Soviet Union dismantled and removed factories from the occupied zone and moved them into Russia to help rebuild their own badly damaged country.

As a result, West Germany, controlled by the U.S., Great Britain, and France became democratic, while East Germany, controlled by the Soviet Union, became a socialist dictatorship.

The Berlin Blockade
Stalin tried to force the U.S., Britain, and France out by stopping all railroads moving in and out of West Berlin.

The Berlin Airlift
U.S., Britain, and France responded with airlifts dropping food and supplies to West Berlin.
The airlifts were successful and the Soviets ended the blockade, but this caused tensions to grow.

NATO vs. The Warsaw Pact
The Beginnings of NATO
In 1949, the U.S., Canada, and ten other countries formed the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO).

NATO – an alliance between western countries who pledges to help one another if one member country were attacked.

Warsaw Pact – in 1955, the Soviet Union and seven satellite countries in Eastern Europe formed this military alliance where they would help each other out if one were attacked.

Satellite country – a country that follows the same government policies as some other “lead” nation.

The Soviet-dominated Eastern European countries became known as the “Eastern-bloc.”

Both the western and the eastern countries then began to spread a “war of propaganda” highlighting their successes and pointing out the failures of one another.

Soviet Response = Warsaw Pact
Berlin Gets Divided
Berlin, the former German capital, lay deep within East Germany.

Even so, Berlin was occupied by all four allied countries.
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