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Public Interest Design Issues

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by

Jill Kurtz

on 15 October 2014

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Transcript of Public Interest Design Issues

Lifestraw, 2005, by V. Frandsen
Sidwell Friends School,
Learning Environment, 2008
Project H, Learning Landscapes
Architecture for Humanity:
Better Classroom Design Challenge
Teton Valley Community School
1. Break down institutional barriers and silos.
Local, state, and federal government entities should seek methods to integrate systems, processes, partnerships, and funding around design.

The federal government, city agencies, nonprofits, philanthropies, and the business community must come together to move complex, visionary agendas, projects, and programs forward.

Cities should also explore opportunities to collaborate with non-traditional partners.
2. Governments need to change 20th-century
regulations that stand in the way of innovation.
Outdated regulations often make it impossible to implement progressive and desirable developments and in some cases actually make desirable changes illegal.

Cities and state governments should work together to transform department of transportation/highway department regulations and metrics.
3. Support and reward innovation.
Using pilot programs to test innovative ideas is a strategy that can be effectively used by cities. First identify what works. Then commit capital to take it to scale.
4. Support small projects.
Leveraging small projects within cities which are all part of a comprehensive vision can create results which are greater than the individual parts.
5. Direct funds to the cities, not to the states.
The federal government should offer credit enhancement and loan guarantees while collaborating with local agencies on grants for cities. This approach would help local jurisdictions and the private sector pay for much of a comprehensive infrastructure plan and give the cities/metro regions the freedom to use the funding to meet their needs.
6. Incorporate urban design within the
structures of government.
A chief urban designer or an office of urban design would integrate design thinking, planning, architecture, and strategy and empower the given jurisdiction to integrate new perspectives into the city planning process. This change could happen at the local, regional, state, or federal levels.
the process of shapping cities
Urban design is an inter-disciplinary subject that unites all the built environment professions, including urban planning, landscape architecture, architecture, civil and municipal engineering.
Health
Growth
Safety
Regional Idenity
Infrastructure
Sanitation
Transportation
Employment
Accessibility
Downtown Redevelopment
Public Spaces
Water Management
Preservation
Waste Mangement
Public Spaces
Political Activity
Segregation
Economic Development
Planning
Energy Regulation
Development Financing
Building Codes and Zoning
CITIES
Designed by Diller Scofidio + Renfro
Jaime Lerner, Former Mayor of Curitiba, Brazil
Civic Engagement
Crime and Safety
Cultural Heritage
Elder Care
Empowerment
Equality
Equity
Freedom
Gathering Spaces
Human Rights
Local Idenity
Discrimination
Strengthing Community
Well-Being
Business Training
Cooperative Ownership
Economic Development
Employment
Enterprise
Entrepreneurship
Living Wages
Asset-Based Development
COMMUNITY
DESIGN
Community Oriented Design Process
Asset Based Approach
SEED Certification
Community Design Centers
1. Participation and Inclusion
Directly involve people affected to decide, develop and implement solutions in their neighborhoods and communities.
Create an environment which encourages and supports the participation of all people and differing perspectives.

Ensure that the process is inclusive, open, and that information is shared by all
2. Focus on Assets - Build Capacity
Continually identify and develop leadership potential of people at the grassroots level and provide opportunities to lead.

Ensure that information which portrays community needs/ problems is balanced with information about community assets and that information is shared with all affected individuals and groups.

Support efforts that lead to sustainable solutions emphasizing leadership development, citizen participation, partnerships with agencies and organizations, and community economic development
3. Collaborative + Partnership
Strongly encourage collaborative activity amongst neighborhoods, agencies, businesses, funders, policy-makers and other stakeholders.

Encourage activities that respond to the uniqueness of each neighborhood and community by bringing together the strengths of local individuals, associations, businesses, faith-based entities and other organizations.

Promote open communication with an emphasison active listening and reaching consensus.
4. Learn
Promote a supportive environment which allows communities and organizations to continually learn and grow.

Support innovations where all can learn together from successes and failures.

Set a culture that encourages innovation.
5. Focus on Results
Encourage a system which gathers, analyzes, tracks, and shares information that will allow all to build upon their experiences.

Demonstrate genuine accountability for outcomes to residents, donors, and all stakeholders.

Acknowledge that to be successful this work requires a long term commitment.
http://www.abcdinstitute.org
Asset-Based Community Development Tools
Purpose

Method

Accountability

Significant of Assets

Production fo Resource

Operating Challenge

System Dynamic

Evaluation
Change through increased services

Institutional Reform

Leaders are staff

Assets are system inputs

Money is key resource

How do we get citizens involved

Spreads itself thinner over time

Success is service outcomes
Change through citizen involvement

Citizen-centered production

Leaders are volunteer citizens

Assets are relationships

Relationships are key resource

How do we channel citizen participation?

Tends to snowball over time

Success is capacity and relationships
Needs Based
Asset Based
A project is awarded SEED Certification when it has demonstrated that a community has effectively used design to overcome social, economic and environmental issues. The project process must have been transparent and included broad stakeholders from the community in decision-making.

Being certified means that a project did what it was meant to do in achieving community goals, and can effectively answer four key questions:
1. What are the critical issues (social, economic, environmental) being
addressed with the project?
2. What will be the design results, and how will they address these issues?
3. How will these results be measured?
4. How has the community participated in the project?
SEED's Mission is to advance the right of every person to live in a socially, economically and environmentally healthy community.
1. Advocate with those who have a limited voice in public life.
2. Build structures for inclusion that engage stakeholders and
allow communities to make decisions.
3. Promote social equality through discourse that reflects a
range of values and social identities.
4. Generate ideas that grow from place and build local capacity.
5. Design to help conserve resources and minimize waste.
SEED PRINCIPLES
Established in 1977, the Association for Community Design (ACD) is a network of individuals, organizations, and institutions committed to increasing the capacity of planning and design professions to better serve communities. ACD serves and supports practitioners, educators, and organizations engaged in community-based design and planning.
http://www.communitydesign.org/
Summarize the Sanoff's article's perspective on the current views of community participation
Community Participation Methods in Design + Planning
http://www.seed-network.org/
Child Care
Crime + Safety
Cultural Heritage
Education
Equality
Hunger
Gardening
Emergency Housing
Homelessness
Transitional Housing
Permanent Housing
Local Idenity
Discrimination
Water Access + Mangement
Debt Relief
Employment
Job Security
Energy Costs
Building Materials
Public Transportation
Community Development
Sanitation
Density
HOUSING
25% of all American households face severe housing challenges, including insufficient funds for monthly rent or repairs, overcrowding, & structural deficiencies
12 million renter and homeowner households now pay more then 50% of their annual incomes for housingA family with one full-time worker earning the minimum wage cannot afford the local fair-market rent for a two-bedroom apartment anywhere in the US
http://www.hud.gov/offices/cpd/affordablehousing/
Health Promotion Design
Healthy Workplace Design
Hospital Design and PPP Impact in the UK
Hospital and work place Design Performance Evaluation
The Hospital Building Flexibility and High Tech Environment
Improving Healing Performance through Aesthetic, Art and Culture
Future Trends in Hospital Design
Guidelines and Design for Effectiveness of Hospitals
Wellness Factors for Health Promotion
Senior/ Elderly Care Design
Hospital Design
Children Hospital Design
The Effect of Gardens on Health and Wellbeing
The Effect of Music on Health and Wellbeing
The Effect of Culture, Art and Color on Health and Wellbeing
Design for Patient Safety
Accessibility
Education
Elder Care
Food + Hunger
Green Gardening
Housing
Recreation
Water Contamination
Well-Being
Insurance
Employment
Biodiverstiy
Functional Eco-Systems
Public Transportation
Sanitation
Public Policy
Happiness
Indoor Air Quality
Pollution
Nutrition
Exercise
HEALTH
PROBONO
Pro bono
publico
for the public good
Latin phrase for professional work undertaken voluntarily and without payment or at a reduced fee as a public service.
Top 50 in Design Excellence/Pro Bono
We connect individuals with national and community organizations dedicated to providing design services for the public good.

We organize outreach activities and events benefiting the communities in which we work.

We target and assess pro-bono projects for clients that need our service and could not otherwise accomplish the work.
Accessibility
Child Care
Crime + Safety
Cultural Heritage
Empowerment
Equlaity
Gathering Spaces
Green Gardening
Health
Learning
Recreation + Play
Strengthening Community
Well-Being
Energy
Conscious Consumption
Environmental Education
Preservation
Public Transportation
Sanitation
Asset Based Development
Public Forums
Community Development
EDUCATION
Crime + Safety
Cultural Heritage
Education
Empowerment
Equality
Food Security + Hunger
Gathering Spaces
Emergency Housing
Human Rights
Water Management
Strengthening Community
Women
Cooperative Ownership
Economic Development
Employment
Access to Energy
Preservation of Nature
Sanitation
Asset-Based Design
Job Security
Entrepeneurship
Discrimination
DISASTER RELIEF +
INT. DEVELOPMENT
1. Unless you build it, it doesn't matter
2. Innovation is only valuable if its shared
3. Be the last responders
4. It is more fun to partner
5. Design is an economic tool
6. Unleash local talent
7. Let scale happen
8. There is no such thing as a typical [designer]
9. Have a sense of humor
10. Design yourself out of a job
How does Bell believe design
and democracy are linked?
Towards a Cultural Value of Design + Democracy
Bryan Bell
The author claims "an architecture of change" is not a new idea. Do you think in the current post-political turn towards public interst design will be another unfulfilled promise or will it be differnt? Why?
An Architecture of Change
Henry Sanoff
Design and democracy are linked in a deeply powerful way that is both idealistic and practical. Both can be strengthened by building their relationship.
Design is all about having choices. We decide
Everyone should be able to participate
Everyone should be able to provide ideas
The marginalized should have a voice
Principle 1: Advocate with those who have a limited voice in public life.

Principle 2: Build structures for inclusion that engage stakeholders and allow community members to make decisions.

Principle 3: Promote social equality through discourse that reflects a range of values and social identities.

Principle 4: Generate ideas that grow from place and build local capacity.

Principle 5: Design to help conserve resources and minimize waste.
All peoples of all backgrounds can participate
Public interest design efficiently allocates public resources to a community’s greatest building priorities through a democratic decision-making process that is transparent and accountable.
1960s
Civil Rights Movement
Saul Alinsky - Founder of Community Organizing
Community Design Centers (CDCs)
Involve residents in setting goals and strategies.
Identify a community's assets as well as its problems.
Work in communities of manageable size.
Develop unique strategies for each neighborhood.
Reinforce community values while building human and social capital.
Develop creative partnerships with institutions in the city.
1990s
Community Building Principles
Information exchange, conflict resolution, and supplementation of planning and design.
Involve in decision-making process increases trust
Provide voice improves plans and meets needs better
Promote community brings people together, increased awareness of how decisions can influence
Most current information provided to professionals involved in the process
Today
Community Participation
1. Participation is inherently good.
2. It is a source of wisdom and information about local
conditions, needs, and attitudes, and thus improves the
effectiveness of decision making.
3. It is an inclusive and pluralistic approach by which
fundamental human needs are fulfilled and user values reflected.
4. It is a means of defending the interests of groups of people
and of individuals, and a tool for satisfying their needs that are
often ignored and dominated by large organizations, institutions,
and their inflated bureaucracies.
4 Essential Characteristics
According to the NYC Active Design Guidelines, how has design reduced disease and obesity?
After reading the "Health + Urbanism Primer",
what do you think were 2 of the major shifts that caused Urban Design and Public Health to drift apart in practice? How did these changes negatively affect health?

From your perspective and area of expertise, what area within the physical, natural, and social environments do you think you can have the greatest influence on in your career moving forward? How?
In Davis' Introduction of
The Architecture of Affordable Housing
, he states several Myths and Half-Truths. Which of these myths do you think is the most important to reframe in order to advance the future of affordable housing?
The authors, Dorgan and Evans, pose this provocation at the beginning of their article "Mainstreaming Good Design in Affordable Housing":

"Affordable housing efforts have too often been hampered by poor design. What strategies can be used to embed high-quality design as a core value in all affordable housing?"

How do the authors answer this questions? What other strategies do you think could be pursued to improve design quality in affordable housing?
In Maurice Cox's article "Rebuilding Bayview," what were some of the key elements of the community and housing project that made it a success? (150 words)
Housing is a technical or production problem
We need housing for families with children
Affordable housing is an urban problem
Regulations and codes protect low-income occupants
Sandardization adn replication of building is the best way to lower costs
Building large projects that gain economies of scale is the best way to lower costs
The single family house is the best form of housing
Afforedable hosuing is a temporary solution for those in need
Affordable housing costs less to build that market-rate
Designers have a limited role in affordable housing
What do you think is the difference between shared values and personal values?

Why is understanding the differences between them important to this work?
Explain what ProBono is and what is not?
What value does it add to the Public Interest Design field?
We need a more sophisticated form of capitalism, one imbued with a social purpose. But that
purpose should arise not out of charity but out of a deeper understanding of competition and
economic value creation.
Not all societal problems can be solved through shared value solutions. But shared value offers
corporations the opportunity to utilize their skills, resources, and management capability to lead
social progress in ways that even the best-intentioned governmental and social sector
organizations can rarely match. In the process, businesses can earn the respect of society again.
What core characteristics or perspective did Samuel Mockbee bring to the Rural Studio that has made it an effective and sustainable model for design build + public interest studios?
Drawing from the article in "The Third Teacher," which principle do you believe is most important to designing learning environments?
What were some of the quotes you thought were most important from the Taylor and Etheridge article from the work of the Tulane City Center?
1. Everyone can be a Designer
2. Do no harm
3. Cherish children's spaces
4. Put safety before study
5. Think small
6. Assign the solution
7. Make janitors guardians
8. Design for speech and hearing
9. Let the sunshine in
10. Shuffle the deck
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