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An Introduction to Psychology and Memory

A brief introduction on the history of Psychology as a scientific discipline and memory as one of the most interesting research areas to first year uni students.
by

Summer Sun

on 24 April 2014

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Transcript of An Introduction to Psychology and Memory

An Introduction to Psychology and Memory
Memory
What we know about human memory
Definition
How memory works
Application
Sidenotes
Biology
Hippocampus: emotion, new memories, navigation, spatial concepts
Psychology Fun
The End
Memory in Films
How Memory Works
The Multistore Model
Level of Processing
Long Term Memory
Nine Swap Cell Ring Lust
Plugs Lamp Apple Table Sway
Army Bank Fire Hold Worm
Clock Horse Colour Baby Sword
Desk Hold Find Bird Rock
CHUNKING
Horse Cat Dog Fish Bird
Orange Yellow Blue Green Black
Table Chair Desk Bookcase Bed
Teacher School Student Homework Class
Apple Banana Kiwi Grape Mango
Thank you!
"Inspiration is for amateurs. The rest of us just show up and get to work."
--- Chunk Close
About Psychology
"We are all Naïve psychologists trying to make sense of the world."
Heider, 1958
"The father of experimental psychology"
Wilhelm Wundt (1832 - 1920)
Glossary

Short term memory (STM) /Working memory
Long term memory (LTM)
Encode
Decay
Selective attention
Rehearsal
Retrieve/retrieval
Explicit/implicit memory
Working Memory
Method
Experiment (animal/human), observation, survey
Qualitative, quantitative

The multistore model (Atkinson and Shiffrin, 1968)
Working memory model (Baddeley and Hitch, 1974)
The levels of processing model (Craik and Lockhart, 1972)
Magic number 7 (Miller, 1956)
Names and dates
What You Need to Note Down
Objective
intelligence, personality, behaviour, emotion, memory, movement, language...

History
Structuralism, functionalism, psychoanalysis, behaviourism, humanistic/positive psychology, Gestalt, cognitivism etc

Field
biology, clinical, cognitive, comparative, critical, developmental, experimental, evolutionary, educational, forensic, social, etc
The Multi-store Model of Memory (Atkinson & Shiffrin, 1968)
The Working Memory Model (Baddeley & Hitch, 1974)

Developed from the Multi-store model
Long Term Memory
Perceptual
Episodic
Semantic
(Explicit/Declarative)
"I had an accident while riding a bike last Sunday."
"A bike is a human-powered, pedal-driven, single-track vehicle. "
"I can ride a bike."
Things I do witout thinking
Thingks I know about
What happenes if it's breoken?
What memory is he missing?
Dynamic but limited
The Levels of Processing Model of Memory
(Craik & Lockhart, 1972)
STM
LTM
shallow
Deep
Structural
(looks like)
Phonetic
(sounds like)
Semantic
(meaning)
“Memory is the process of maintaining information over time.” (Matlin, 2005)



“Memory is the means by which we draw on our past experiences in order to use this information in the present.” (Sternberg, 1999).

Definition
Memory is the process in which information is encoded, stored and retrieved. (APA index, retrieved at: 12/8/2013)

Summer Sun presents
15.8.2013

Atkinson, R. C., & Shiffrin, R. M. (1968). "Chapter: Human memory: A proposed system and its control processes". In Spence, K. W., & Spence, J. T. The psychology of learning and motivation, 2, 89–195.New York: Academic Press.

Baddeley, A. D., & Hitch, G. (1974). Working memory. In G.H. Bower (Ed.),The psychology of learning and motivation: Advances in research and theory, 8, 47–89. New York: Academic Press.

Matlin, M. W. (2005). Cognition. Crawfordsville: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Miller, G.A. (1956). The magical number seven, plus or minus two: Some limits on our capacity for processing information. Psychological Review, 63, 81–97.

Tulving, E. (1972). Episodic and semantic memory. In E. Tulving & W. Donaldson (Eds.), Organization of Memory, 381–403. New York: Academic Press.

Sternberg, R. J. (1999). Cognitive psychology (2 nd ed.). Fort Worth, TX: Harcourt Brace College Publishers.
Reference
Question for you to think about: what memory is the guy from Memento missing?
Full transcript