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Transcript of Early Middle-Ages
1. Heritage of Rome
2. Roman Catholic Church
3. The customs of the Germans
After Rome fell in 476 C.E. to Germanic tribes (Ostrogoths) where did people migrate to?
I can't read
And I can't write
What language was lost and languages spawned?
5 Main Romance Languages
What institution from Rome survived and was the basis for European history throughout the MIddle-Ages?
Roman Catholic Church
481 AD/CE becomes king of a Frankish tribe
Took over other tribes and more land
Becomes a Christian and receives support from the church
He and his successors are called Merovingians
First Ruler of the Franks
Charles Martel “The Hammer”
- 732 AD: responsible for defeating the Moors
in the Battle of Tours with the use of a Calvary
Pepin III “The Short”
-Charles Martel’s son
-751 AD: made King of the Franks
-Carolingians line of rulers begins
-The Donation of Pepin: Pope sought his help against the Lombards. Pepin III and the Franks defeated them and gave the land around Rome to the Pope. This created the Papal States
714- 768 CE
He was Pepin III’s son
800 AD: Pope crowned him the Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire.
Charlemagne appointed 350 counts to oversee the counties.
He also was an advocate for education
After his death his grandsons split the kingdom three ways in the Treaty of Verdun
How did Charlemagne revive the idea of the Roman Empire?
The alliance between Frankish kings and the church reestablished Roman culture in Western Europe.
Events of the Age of Charlemagne
• Franks emerged as a force in Western Europe.
• Power of the church was established in
• Roman culture was revived.
Achievements of Charlemagne
Holy Roman Empire
Viking 700-1000 CE
Vikings Raided England
Magyars 700 -1000
Angles and Saxons
How did invasions by the Angles, Saxons, Magyars, and Vikings influence the development of Europe?
Invasions by Angles, Saxons, Magyars, and Vikings disrupted the social, economic, and political order of Europe.
Manors with castles provided protection from invaders, reinforcing the feudal system.
Invasions disrupted trade, towns declined, and the feudal system was strengthened.
Feudalism is a political system of government based on the granting of land.
( Political Structure of the Middle Ages)
The Manorial system was part of Medieval feudalism. (Economic Structure of the Middle Ages)
The system provided a rigid class structure and self- sufficient manors.
After the death of Charlemagne, organized government disappeared
Europe became ruled by independent leaders
The decline of Roman influence in Western Europe invasions of barbarian tribes left people with little protection, so they entered into feudal agreements with land-holding lords who promised them protection.
What led to the Feudal System?
Granted land to a lesser noble while retaining ownership
This allowed the lesser noble the ability to maintain their household
The grant of the land was called a fief
The person who received the land was called a vassal
Vassals could further divide the land and become a lord
The system cont…
The fiefs became hereditary
Primogeniture is the system of inheritance from father to eldest son
Essentially, every landholder was a vassal to the King
But, the King only controlled those living on his feudal lands
Rights of Women
Women had limited property rights
Woman may have fiefs in her dowry
With marriage, her husband gained control of the dowry
Manors were forced to be self sufficient
They produced everything they needed
Items like iron, salt, wood, wine, and other manufactured goods were purchased
Land of the manor was shared by a lord and several peasant families
About one-third of land was kept for the lord, while the rest was farmed by the peasants
Peasants gave the lord some of their crops and helped farm his land
They also paid many taxes
Most manor villages were located along a stream or a river
Two of the three fields were cultivated, while the other was fallow to regain its fertility
The Life of a Peasant
Spent long hours in the fields
Most serfs could not leave the land without the permission of the lord
Could not hunt on the lord’s property or afford to raise their own animals, so they rarely ate meat
Life expectancy was very short because of diet, warfare, disease, and starvation
The upper class of the Middle ages did not live in luxury
Castles were bases for the lord to enforce authority and protect the countryside
Castles built on hills
Moats were built around Castles on flat land
These protected it and drawbridges allowed access to castle over the flooded moats
A “keep” was the main building of the castle and was used as a storeroom, workshop, and lord’s living quarters
Men acquired land through marriage
Chivalry: a code of conduct
Dictated knights’ behavior toward others
Chivalry comes from the French word cheval,
meaning horse, because knights were mounted soldiers
Knights were expected to be courageous in battle and fight fairly
Also, be loyal, treat his conquered foes gallantly, and be courteous to women and the less powerful
How do I become a Knight?
Knights had to belong to a noble class and pass two stages of training
Stage 1: age of seven when a boy would be a knight’s page, or attendant
Stage 2: knight’s assistant, or squire
He would take care of the knight’s horse, armor, and weapons
During the Middle Ages, the Roman Catholic church grew in importance after the decline of the Western Roman Empire.
The Pope anointed the Emperors, missionaries carried Christianity to the Germanic tribes, and the Church served the social, political, and religious needs of the people.
The medieval church had enormous political power. The church filled all needs for leadership by performing functions of modern government. By the 1100s, the church was one of Europe’s leading landowners.
Lowest rank in the church hierarchy
Responsible for the moral and spiritual life of the community
They could perform
: baptism, Holy Communion, penance, matrimony, and the anointing of the sick and dying
Poor and sick
Managed a group of parishes called a diocese.
Could perform the last two sacraments: confirmation and the taking of holy orders
Appointed parish priest and managed church property
The King or powerful nobles controlled the selection of bishops
Many bishops were also feudal lords or vassals
Managed a group of several diocese called an archdiocese
They had all the powers of a bishop and had authority over the bishops within their archdiocese
“princes of the church”
Advised the pope on legal and spiritual matters
From the late 1100s only cardinals could elect the pope
Held supreme authority in the church
The church had its own courts and law code:
Members of clergy could be excommunicated
could be issued which closed all churches within a region
The church had power to tax through
, one-tenth of a Christian’s income
It also received income from its own land
The family was considered a sacred institution and divorce was not allowed
The church’s wealth and influence lead to problems
: nobles appoint a friend/relative to be bishop or abbot
buying of high position within the church hierarchy
Religious groups and tactics dedicated to church reform
St. Francis of Assisi: order of Franciscans
St. Dominic: order of the Dominicans
Members of these two orders were called friars
They lived and preached among the people
: search for heretics
Muslims 700-1492 AD
Before his death, Charlemagne crowned his son,
Louis the Pious as the new emperor. Louis was thought to be a weak ruler because he focused more on his faith than political rule.
A civil war broke out among Louis’ three sons:
1. Lothair I
2. Charles the Bald
3. Louis the German
St. Peter's Basilica
Knights became better horsemen due to:
All knights lived by a code of Honor called Chivalry.
Knights were expected to be loyal to their:
2. Feudal Lord
THE CATHOLIC CHURCH