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Transcript of Ethnography:
A Culture of Learning
design by Dóri Sirály for Prezi
The study of cultural patterns and perspectives of participants in their natural settings
Is long-term study of a particular phenomena
Attempts to understand patterns and regularities of human behavior in social activity
Is Qualitative-Based research
From the roots
meaning "people, nation" and
meaning "I write"
First, a video....
A presentation by
Jenny, Katie, Michelle, Melody & Jayme
An ethnographer in Ghana, West Africa
studying the social and economic organization
of a marketplace system
on site and sample
Researcher writes ethnographic account
Carried out in a natural
setting, not a lab
Involves close, face-to-face
interaction with participants
Seeks to describe an accurate reflection of participants' perspectives and behaviors
Uses inductive, interactive, and repetitious collection of unstructured data as well as analytic strategies to build local cultural theories
purpose of study,
frames it as a larger
Uses culture as a lens through which to interpret results
Investigates small number of cases, sometimes just one
Requires researchers to be reflective about their own impact on study
Frames human behavior within sociopolitical and historical context
Emphasis on exploring social phenomenon rather than testing hypothesis
Ethnographic Methods for....
Looking at artifacts
Looking at Visual Materials
Types of Ethnographies:
Summary guidelines for fieldwork and field notes
Be descriptive in taking field notes
Gather a variety of information from different perspectives
Cross-validate and triangulate by gathering different kinds of data and by using multiple methods.
(e.g., observations, documents, interviews)
Select "key informants" wisely and use them carefully. Draw on the wisdom of their informed perspectives, but keep in mind that their perspectives are limited.
Be aware of and sensitive to different stages of fieldwork.
a) Build trust and rapport at the beginning.
Remember that the observer is also being observed.
b) Stay alert and disciplined during the more
routine, middle phase of fieldwork.
c) Focus on pulling together a useful synthesis as fieldwork draws to a close.
Be disciplined and conscientious in taking field notes at all stages of fieldwork.
Be as involved as possible in experiencing the situation as fully as possible while maintaining an analytical perspective grounded in the purpose of the fieldwork.
Clearly separate description from interpretation and judgment
Include in your field notes and report your own experiences, thoughts and feelings.
Use special codes like
P.C-for personal comment
O.C for Observer's comment
Difficult to replicate
Captures Emotional Behavior
Time enables relationship to develop
Gay, L. R., Mills, G. E., & Airasian, P. W. (2009). Educational research:
competencies for analysis and applications (9th ed.). Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Pearson Merrill Prentice Hall.
The use of multiple methods, data collection strategies, and data sources to get a more complete picture of what is being studied and to cross-check information.
Schwimmer, B. (1996, January 1). Module I: Introduction.
Ethnographic methods. Retrieved May 6, 2014, from http://www.umanitoba.ca/faculties/arts/anthropology/courses/122/module1/methods.html
Nurani, L. M. (2008). Critical review of ethnographic approach. Journal
Sosioteknologi Edisi, 14(7), 441-447.
Gray D. Ten years on: a longitudinal study of
families of children with autism: J Intell Dev Disability. 2002; 27: 215-222
Types of Observations:
Privileged Active Observer
F.N.- provide a record of the researcher's understanding of the lives, the people and the events that are the focus.
Insight into the use of F.N.
1) What is observed is treated as data.
2) Give special attention to the indigenous meaning & concerns of people studied
3)FN written within the same time are essential for writing broader more coherent accounts of others lives.
4)FN should detail social & interactional processes that make up their everyday lives & accounts
Goal is to Describe not analyze!
Data begins and you learn more about research
Identify specific issues
This guides further data collection
Also guides the end of data collection as well: "Data "Saturation" (no new data is being collected)
Insight to FN