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Ethnography:

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by

Katie Reilly

on 8 May 2014

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Transcript of Ethnography:

Use quotations; represent people in their own terms. Capture their experiences in their own words.
Ethnography:
A Culture of Learning

design by Dóri Sirály for Prezi
The study of cultural patterns and perspectives of participants in their natural settings
Is long-term study of a particular phenomena
Attempts to understand patterns and regularities of human behavior in social activity
Is Qualitative-Based research
From the roots
ethnos
meaning "people, nation" and
grapho
meaning "I write"
Ethnographic Research:
First, a video....
Facts about
Ethnographic Research:
Characteristics of
Ethnographic Research
A presentation by
Jenny, Katie, Michelle, Melody & Jayme

An ethnographer in Ghana, West Africa
studying the social and economic organization
of a marketplace system
1

Researcher decides
on site and sample
Researcher secures
permissions and
negotiates entry
Researcher begins
data collection
Researcher writes ethnographic account
2
Carried out in a natural
setting, not a lab
Involves close, face-to-face
interaction with participants
Seeks to describe an accurate reflection of participants' perspectives and behaviors
Uses inductive, interactive, and repetitious collection of unstructured data as well as analytic strategies to build local cultural theories
The Ethnographic
Research Process
Researcher Identifies
purpose of study,
frames it as a larger
practical problem
1
2
3
4
5
Characteristics Cont.
Uses culture as a lens through which to interpret results
Investigates small number of cases, sometimes just one
Requires researchers to be reflective about their own impact on study
Frames human behavior within sociopolitical and historical context
Emphasis on exploring social phenomenon rather than testing hypothesis
Ethnographic Methods for....
DATA COLLECTION
Conducting
Interviews
Observations
Looking at artifacts
Looking at Visual Materials
Reviewing Documents
Types of Ethnographies:
Realist Ethnography
Confessional Ethnography
Life History
Auto- Ethnography
Micro-
Ethnography
Ethnographic
Case Study
Critical Ethnography
Feminist Ethnography
Postmodern
Ethnography
Ethnographic Novels
Strengths
Weaknesses
6
Analyze data
*
*
*
Summary guidelines for fieldwork and field notes

Be descriptive in taking field notes
2
Gather a variety of information from different perspectives
3
Cross-validate and triangulate by gathering different kinds of data and by using multiple methods.
(e.g., observations, documents, interviews)
4
Select "key informants" wisely and use them carefully. Draw on the wisdom of their informed perspectives, but keep in mind that their perspectives are limited.
6
Be aware of and sensitive to different stages of fieldwork.
a) Build trust and rapport at the beginning.
Remember that the observer is also being observed.

b) Stay alert and disciplined during the more
routine, middle phase of fieldwork.

c) Focus on pulling together a useful synthesis as fieldwork draws to a close.
7
Be disciplined and conscientious in taking field notes at all stages of fieldwork.
8
Be as involved as possible in experiencing the situation as fully as possible while maintaining an analytical perspective grounded in the purpose of the fieldwork.
9
Clearly separate description from interpretation and judgment
1
5
`
Include in your field notes and report your own experiences, thoughts and feelings.
Use special codes like
P.C-for personal comment
or
O.C for Observer's comment
10
Difficult to replicate
Validity
Time
Resources
3
3
Rich source
of data
Humanizes Data
Captures Emotional Behavior
Identifies discrepancies
Time enables relationship to develop
References
Gay, L. R., Mills, G. E., & Airasian, P. W. (2009). Educational research:
competencies for analysis and applications (9th ed.). Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Pearson Merrill Prentice Hall.
Triangulation:
The use of multiple methods, data collection strategies, and data sources to get a more complete picture of what is being studied and to cross-check information.
2
Schwimmer, B. (1996, January 1). Module I: Introduction.
Ethnographic methods. Retrieved May 6, 2014, from http://www.umanitoba.ca/faculties/arts/anthropology/courses/122/module1/methods.html
1
2
Nurani, L. M. (2008). Critical review of ethnographic approach. Journal
Sosioteknologi Edisi, 14(7), 441-447.
3
Gray D. Ten years on: a longitudinal study of
families of children with autism: J Intell Dev Disability. 2002; 27: 215-222
4
Types of Observations:

Active Participation
Privileged Active Observer
Passive Observer
Field Notes
F.N.- provide a record of the researcher's understanding of the lives, the people and the events that are the focus.
Primary Tool!!
Insight into the use of F.N.
1) What is observed is treated as data.
2) Give special attention to the indigenous meaning & concerns of people studied
3)FN written within the same time are essential for writing broader more coherent accounts of others lives.
4)FN should detail social & interactional processes that make up their everyday lives & accounts
Goal is to Describe not analyze!
Discursive Data
Collection
Data begins and you learn more about research
Identify specific issues
This guides further data collection
Also guides the end of data collection as well: "Data "Saturation" (no new data is being collected)

Insight to FN
http://tedxtalks.ted.com/video/Ethnography-Ellen-Isaacs-at-TED
Full transcript