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Classroom and School Influences
Transcript of Classroom and School Influences
Learner- Centered Classrooms The teacher:
Monitors Transition into Elementary School The entry into elementary school is accompanied by several significant changes in children’s lives.
Organized by age.
Grouped by reading and math ability.
Children from diverse backgrounds are expected to adapt to a different school environment.
Children’s relationships in school have significant impact on school adjustment and achievement. Transition into Middle School Research indicates negative changes in children’s motivation during middle school transition.
Shift from a intrinsic motivation in third graders to a more extrinsic motivation by ninth grade.
Declining confidence and increasing anxiety.
Feelings of anonymity and alienation.
Students are less likely to take an active role in learning or to receive support they need when experiencing behavioral or academic problems. Transition into High School High schools are larger, more bureaucratic, impersonal, and academically challenging.
Tracking systems: group students by ability and vocational aspirations.
Motivated by the idea of gaining trust and respect.
The pathway to high school dropout typically begins in elementary or middle school when students experience difficulty keeping up with their peers, or adjusting to the school environment. School Climate: Sense of Community, Warmth and Civility, Feelings of Safety and Security Sense of Community
committed to goals and values
leaders care about and are concerned about individuals
Warmth and Civility
teachers and staff get along=positive outcomes and school effectiveness-positive teacher-student interaction=positive motivational outcomes
Feelings of Safety and Security
Feeling safe and secure when it comes to voicing opinions
Feeling safe and secure from harm Task and Work Structures
the kinds of activities used to cover curriculum
Some schools use tracking
Some argue that students should be allowed to choose their classes
How students are assessed and evaluated can effect their motivation
Schools need to reduce the emphasis on public normative social comparisons.
Also, if students are given the chance to self-evaluate, it can help them individually realize what they need to improve on.
Allowing flexibility with student work can increase student intrinsic motivation and mastery goal orientation
Allow students to set proximal and long term goals
responsibility, independence, and leadership skills
Recognition and Reward Structures
There needs to be variety when it comes to classroom and school recognition
Authority and Management Structures
Having students and teachers involved in decision making in the classroom and school can have beneficial effects.
Students can develop External Constraints and Opportunities Types of Students
achievement level, race, social class, age
small schools are more organized, productive, ad communicative
Parental and Community Involvement
Schools need parent and community involvement
District and State Level Constraints and Opportunities
After school programs help students from high risk neighborhoods gain achievement and motivation
School funding influences how much teachers can do in the classroom
Standardized testing Teachers can influence student motivation through their planning, organization, management, and interactions.
Organization refers to how activities are set up, how students are grouped, how work is evaluated and rewarded, how authority is established, and how time is scheduled.
Four different ways to characterize these different types of classrooms: Differentiation of Class structure, student autonomy, grouping patterns, performance evaluations ripple effect: how a teacher’s handling of misbehavior affects a student who sees this behavior, but doesn’t necessarily participate in the behavior.
desist: teacher’s actions to stop misbehavior
Kounin hypothesized that a desist would cause a ripple effect Characteristics of Desists Clarity: extent to which desist names the student, specifies the behavior, and gives reason for the desist.
Firmness: how well the desist conveys the “I-mean-it” attitude with follow through until behavior stops
Roughness: extent to which the desist includes threats, anger or punishment
No relationship between the qualities of desists and success when handling a deviancy.
Five types of proactive teacher activities: withitness, overlapping, movement management, group focus, minimizing satiation “eyes in the back of your head”
teacher identifies the wrong student for a desist
overlooking a more serious deviancy and makes a desist for a less serious one
Timing errors: deviancy spreads to more students before it is stopped by a desist
Predictor of good classroom management
Correlates positively with student work involvement and with freedom from deviancy Withitness A deviancy occurs while the teacher is working with another group
correlates positively with work involvement and freedom from deviancy
often occurs with withitness and thus has some overlapping correlation Overlapping Movement Management Momentum correlates positively with work involvement and freedom from deviancy during recitation but less so during seatwork.
reflects how smoothly teachers keep lessons moving and make transitions between activities
Jerkiness: occurs when teachers suddenly announce a change that catches the students by surprise
Slowdowns: delays that waste time. Group Focus Format- involves grouping students in such a way to facilitate active participation by all students.
teacher’s efforts to keep students on task. Has three dimensions
Group altering- refers to the extent that the teacher maintains student attention during group activity.
Accountability- each student in the group is responsible for learning the concepts being taught. Minimizing Satiation Satiation that did not occur or occurred slowly caused students to experience feelings of progress and to not believe that the work was repetitive.
Variety and challenge are other variables that minimized satiation and boosted motivation schools that have shared beliefs and goals function better and more effectively
Sizer's Coalition of Essential Schools provides 9 principles that should guide school organization, curriculum and staff
Critical norm: all students have the potential to learn
Lee and Smith found that the school's academic press related significantly to the student's motivation and achievement Develop common school norms, values and shred beliefs Develop a school climate of good collegial and personal relations relation between staff and students reflects a mutual concern for the school community
it is hard because of staff constituencies and personal differences
Sizer pointed out that if school staff is engaged in a common task or school reform that is taken seriously and has some chance of making real changes , respectful and trusting relations can develop among the staff school environments that increase their attachment to school have important motivation and achievements benefits
schools belonging involves being accepted by their peers and identifying values and goals of schooling
numerous studies have been done that show the positive influence of school belonging on students motivation, achievement and satisfaction Foster a sense of school belonging or connection smaller classes in the elementary grades have shown to have long-lasting benefits
at the secondary level smaller groups can improve students improvement and motivation by connecting subject matter learning to the outside world
more teacher attention and more teacher-student relations Develop smaller learning communities within larger school environments students are more interest in tasks that take advantage of their backgrounds, interests and experiences
Paris and Ayres suggested making portfolios
Sizer provided numerous suggestions for exhibitions Design Task and Work Structures to Foster Engagement and Student Autonomy teachers can provide opportunities for student choice, decision making and active learning
supporting student autonomy can take a number of different forms
students of all ages tend to report greater competence, engagement, intrinsic motivation and well-being in classrooms perceived as autonomy supportive Design Authority and Management Structures That Allow for Choice and Control Schools can develop programs that recognize students for their improvement
Sizer described how a school can use exhibitions whereby students actually demonstrate their knowledge and skills Provide Opportunities for all Students to be Recognized and Rewarded Provide Grouping Arrangements that Foster Student Interaction small groups foster student-student interaction
between classroom grouping should be minimized
other alternatives include: cooperative learning , inquiry groups, tutoring programs, school-within-school arrangements, etc.
these grouping structures promote better teacher-student and student-student interaction because they get to know each other Focus Evaluation Practices on Progress and Improvement it's important to track the student's progress
setting standards and holding the student accountable for reaching them motivates him/her to excel
studies show that students need multiple ways of demonstrating their competence within a subject area
alternative tools help students check their progress
report cards can be used to show improvement not by using letter grades or percentages Manage Time Use to Facilitate Changes in the Culture and Organization of the School schools can use a number of differentiated teaching patterns that can provide the needed time for school reform methods
school-within-school structures can allow for more flexible scheduling because the number of teachers and students to coordinate is smaller Break Out Activity 1. In your small groups, think of one time you have seen one of the proactive teacher activities put to good use. 2. Think of a way you can minimize satiation in your future classroom. Withitness Overlapping Movement Management Group Focus Minimize Satiation