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Chapter 7: How to Make an Almond

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Arturo Arce

on 6 October 2013

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Transcript of Chapter 7: How to Make an Almond

Strawberries evolved through natural selection.

The fruit is green, sour and hard when its not ready to be planted. This prevent birds from eating and destroying the seeds.

When the strawberries turned red,sweet, and tender it attracted more bird that would eat them and spit them out or defecate them.

Guns, Germs and, Steel
by Jared Diamond
Chapter 7: How to Make an Almond
Presented to you by: Wai Wing Lau, Jennifer Garcia, Alisha Medina, and Arturo Arce

Central Thesis
-Natural Selection and several other organisms' unintentional actions developed the way for plant domestication.

-This means that wild plants essentially became plants that are good for any organism to eat through natural selection.

Human and Animal actions
Organisms consume plants and the seeds are:
*Spit out or defecated somewhere far from the parent plant
*Germinate out of the feces of the organism
Humans pick up plants and harvest their seeds; mutant plants become most useful to humans (i.e. bigger or less bitter seeds)
Farmers tend to select among plants on qualities like size and taste, but also seed dispersal mechanisms, germination inhibition, and reproductive biology
Some plants were hard to cultivate (i.e. apples, pears, plums, and cherries), and farming techniques were developed (i.e. grafting [China])
Patience was a factor that led to the low possibilities of cultivating some plants
Peas seeds are enclosed in a pod. Wild peas must escape the pod to germinate. Pea plants evolved a gene, making the pod explode, shooting out seeds into the ground, but mutant peas that don't practically face extinction. However, humans start to harvest the wild peas because they could eat the peas inside it that weren't spread, and the recessive mutant gene became dominant.
Almonds are one of the few non visible aspects that affected the genetic of plants to be domesticate

Almond seeds were really bitter, and toxic which prevented birds and other animals to have eaten them

Curiosity of people lead them to realized the difference between bitter and non bitter almond trees.The non bitter almonds are the ones farmers planted.
Plant Evolution and Changes
Theme 1: Interactions between Humans and the Environment
Jared Diamond: Author of Gun Germs, And Steel
Some plant species have evolved to make their seeds to be carried by wind, floating on water, some wrapping the seed(s) in a tasty fruit
Some plant seeds can resist digestion and germinate out of feces
Some seeds have evolved to taste bitter and poisonous at times so that animals won't eat them, thus killing the seeds
Some plants have evolved to spread seeds out and far away from the parent so that it is guaranteed that some will survive
The Central Question is...how did some wild plants in the past become crops that were consumed and produced by humans of the past and today?
To our knowledge in history thus far, humans have advanced rapidly. Food was a sustenance that was a factor to advancement and humans started to recognize their environment's abundance of plants, possibly crops for food. Given that, there were several interactions between humans and their respective environments.
Change and Adaption
When humans started to realize that they could harvest plants into crops for sustenance, this led to a revolution of how people got their food (Neolithic Revolution). This led to the advancement of ideas and technology, as humans tried their best to understand their environment and the crops that they grew. Even today, botanists try to figure out why some plants cannot be harvested as a crop, and look deeper into plants' genetic coding to understand the things we eat, or possibly can eat.
Full transcript