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Stewart negron EI portfolio
Transcript of Stewart negron EI portfolio
Soon, the surface collapsed exposing barrels of hazardous chemicals.
Fumes and chemicals leeched into the ground, and people suffered birth defects and miscarriages. In response, people demanded that the state do something to reduce the health hazards. President Carter signed an emergency declaration in 1978 to relocate hundreds of residents and the school closed and homes were demolished or abandoned to reduce the threat of hazardous waste health effects. The Civil Action In this movie, Jan Schlictmann (John Travolta) is addressing a problem in which water is being contaminated by hazardous chemicals from a nearby factory causing the people of that town to get sick. He fights to investigate this factory and searches for evidence proving they dump their waste in that river. Primary Recycling This is a closed loop process in which new material is made from the same old material Secondary recycling This type of recycling is the type in which old recycled material is made into a completely different product. Pros Health and environmental benefit
Saves raw materials
Reduces energy consumption
Reduces air pollution
Encourages people to be responsible. Cons High cost
Technicalliy difficult to recycle certain materials
Pollution still released as trucks picking up and distributing product release gas and carbon dioxide. Hazardous waste is waste that possess potential threat to public health or the environment. There are three classes of hazardous waste... Organics such as solvents, PCB's, and Dioxins. Non-Degradable Toxics such as lead and mercury, and radioactive waste. There is also E-waste, which are electronics, computers, cellphones, iPod's etc. Managing Hazardous Waste Burial (Landfill)- There are only about 23 hazardous landfills in the U.S. These are most widely used, and the least expensive. There can be no liquids in landfills they must be solidified.
Deep Well Injection- Liquid hazardous material is pumped into dry rock below the surface and below the water table.
Bio remediation- Uses bacteria to destroy the toxic or hazardous substance. Typically used in oil material.
Incineration- Burning the waste into ash and converting it to energy occasionally.
Cement kilns of fuels blending- Uses energy from hazardous material to make cement or fuel to burn at a kiln. Hazardous Waste Regulations Cradle To Grave: Keep track of waste from point of generation(cradle) to disposal(grave).
Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA): Standards for waste management stating how hazardous waste must be handled.
Comprehensive Environmental Resource Compensation Liability Act (CERCLA): Also known as Superfund, this acts goal is to clean up toxic sites.
Basel Convention (1994): Banned the export of hazardous waste to less developed countries. Hydrofracking is the process in which fractures in rocks below the earths surface are opened and widened by injecting chemicals and liquids at high pressure in order to extract natural gas or oil. Drilling often offers in shale deposits, because it allows drillers to drill horizontally, saving time and money. Shale is an excellent holder of natural gas as well. The Marcellus Shale gas formation is rich in natural gas resources. It is one of the largest shale regions in the United States! Marcellus shale is estimated to be the second largest natural gas find in the world. Stretching across New York, Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Ohio and Maryland. It holds up to 500 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, making it a target for hydrofracking. Sanitary Waste and Management Important Vocabulary Sanitary Landfill Incineration and Resource Recovery Composting -Solid waste is generated throughout the life cycle of a product, this life cycle goes from the extracting of natural resources (mining), to manufacturing and transportation, then finally consumption. -Solid waste has become a problem because a lack of space for dumping. -The United States currently produces 220 million tons of waste a year. It is the world leader along with Canada in solid waste production.
-The average American generates 1,620 pounds of Municipal solid waste (MSW)! Of the 11 Billion tons of waste generated annually: Agriculture- 1/2
Industriul- 400 Million Metric Tons
Mining-1/3 MSW: 230 Million Metric Tons
Hazardous: 60 Million Metric Tons Municipal Solid Waste: Common waste produces from homes and every day life.
Waste Stream: Physical supply of waste (solid, liquid, gas, animal product) The most common items in the waste stream are paper products and yard waste.
Recycling: The reuse of products to create another product. -60% of all waste goes into sanitary landfills.
(+)They are convenient and inexpensive.
-There are 1700 in the U.S. which once they are closed, they become recreational parks.
(-)-Generates waste water (leachate) which are liquids that leak through the waste into the soil and water. This is usually prevented by lining a landfill to catch water and treat it.
(-)-Methane gas from decomposition of bacteria is released into the atmosphere.
(+)-Sometimes it is captured for energy. Refuse Derived: Garbage that can be recycled is sorted out and the rest is burned.
Mass Burn: Everything smaller than major furniture is burned.
(+)- Reduces land fill disposal volume, generates heat and electricity, turns waste into energy.
(-)- Air pollution, dioxins, toxic ash is generated, expensive The process of using natural processes to decompose organic material into mulch or hummus.
This is best for back yard clippings, leaves and food with the exception of dairy and meat
Left over organic material is used to enrich soil. This helps soil retain water.
Compost can be sold for money
This is used in a lot of organic farming Source Reduction This is the process of preventing waste generation. This includes less consumption, less packaging, and better designed goods that last longed and have less packaging. Gasland Gasland vs. Fracknation In reaction to a confrontation between Josh Fox and himself, journalist Phelim McAleer created a counteractive documentary trying to expose lies that Josh Fox has spread to the public about hyrdrofracking. The confrontation that sparked this took place at an event where Fox was promoting his movie, and McAleer asked Fox about older records in which water has lit on fire before fracking started, suggesting that the case in the movie was one of those cases. Fox says he did not include that information in his film because he did not think it was relevant towards the current drilling impacts of certain areas. A video of the confrontation was released to the public and Fox's lawyers got it removed but it got restored. In the movie he goes to communities in the same area and looks for evidence proving Josh Fox's claims to be a lie. He gets residence who drink the water right in front of him as well as suspicious behavior from people involved in Gasland. But all this movie does, like Gasland, is confuses the people more . The Big Debate It is a huge debate whether this process should take place or not in this region. One side of the debate is against hydrofracking, bringing up the large amount of water used in the process, use of chemicals, contamination of water, and reports of sickness and even death in the close populations. While people for fracking refer to scientific experiments testing the water, soil, and environment around fracking sites which say there is no such contamination. They also believe that the opportunity to obtain such a surplus in resources is too great to surpass. Both sides have reasonable statements and defenses which is why the debate has gone on for so long. While both movies were very interesting and informational, I did not enjoy either one of them. Both main characters are trying to find and reveal the truth about hydrofracking, but both of them are one track minded. Josh Fox of "Gasland" goes investigating with a mindset that he will find negatives about hydrofracking so he looks for the negatives whole movie. Similarly, Phelim McAleer of "Fracknation" searches for evidence to prove Josh wrong. He is fueled by a previous confrontation so while he claims to focus on both sides, he surely doesn't want to prove Josh right! Therefore both investigators were already biased and opinionated are not open to evidence disproving their beliefs. Neither movie is finding the truth, they are proving their opinion. By showing only situations that support their belief, the watcher is pushed towards their belief as well. They are both movies to influence people to come to their side while all the people want to know is the truth. After watching both movies I've become more confused and unsure than I was before. Review After receiving a letter from an energy company offering $100,000 to lease his land for drilling, Josh Fox embarks on a cross-country trip to uncover the secrets, lies and contamination involved in hydrofracking. He visits homes close to drilling sites and discovers jaw-dropping evidence. From residents lighting their water on fire, to brown water, and dead animals. Fox decided to investigate deeper so he tries to contact head officials of the drilling companies, who in no way wanted to talk. Strange, in the other movie residents seem to be completly fine with hydrofracking... Fracknation Biomes: The worlds major communities classified according to the predominant vegetation and characterized by adaptions of organisms to that particular environment. Biomes Tropical Rainforest Average humidity is between 77 and 88%; rainfall is often more than 100 inches a year. Rainforests now cover less than 6% of Earth's land surface. Scientists estimate that more than half of all the world's plant and animal species live in tropical rain forests. A forest of tall trees in a region of year-round warmth. An average of 50 to 260 inches (125 to 660 cm.) of rain falls yearly.The temperature in a rain forest rarely gets higher than 93 °F (34 °C) or drops below 68 °F (20 °C); Tropical rainforests produce 40% of Earth's oxygen. About 1/4 of all the medicines we use come from rainforest plants. Cold & Hot Desert -The four major North American deserts of this type are the Chihuahuan, Sonoran, Mojave and Great Basin. Others outside the U.S. include the Southern Asian realm, Neotropical (South and Central America), Ethiopian (Africa) and Australian.
Temperatures exhibit daily extremes because the atmosphere contains little humidity to block the Sun's rays. Desert surfaces receive a little more than twice the solar radiation received by humid regions and lose almost twice as much heat at night. Many mean annual temperatures range from 20-25° C. The extreme maximum ranges from 43.5-49° C. Minimum temperatures sometimes drop to -18° C. Rainfall is usually very low and/or concentrated in short bursts between long rainless periods. Evaporation rates regularly exceed rainfall rates. Sometimes rain starts falling and evaporates before reaching the ground. Rainfall is lowest on the Atacama Desert of Chile, where it averages less than 1.5 cm. Some years are even rainless. Inland Sahara also receives less than 1.5 cm a year. Rainfall in American deserts is higher — almost 28 cm a year. Ichthyologist: A branch of zoology devoted to the study of fish. They work to solve the problems that fish and their environments face through analysis and research. Ichthyology is a very broad field, so there are many specialty areas. Some of the main specialty areas include classification, anatomy, life history, conservation, physiology, ecology, and behavior. Ichthyologists can work at colleges and schools to educate about fish, they can work for the state or government in special departments, work at museums or aquariums managing the supply of fish. Ichthyologists who wish to preserve the natural environment and to prevent overfishing and pollution would most likely work in the area of conservation biology. Record keeping is an important part of ichthyology because it allows researchers to observe the behavior and habits of the fish. The ability to use advanced technology is also an important aspect of Ichthyology. Underwater tracking and most research done in laboratories involve the use of highly advanced machinery. Project AWARE Project AWARE is a non-profit, worldwide organization dedicated to conserving underwater environments through education, advocacy and action. (Aquatic World Awareness Responsibility, and Education) Established in 1989 by the Professional Association of Diving Instructors (PADI) in response to growing concerns by scuba divers about potential harm inflicted on coral reefs by recreational and commercial water activities. Reductions in our natural reef systems have been due to mans activities and natural disasters. Project AWARE monitors and reports on the state of the marine environment and lobby governments for greater action on preservation and conservation. Project AWARE also sponsors regular events such as beach and reef cleansing, coral monitoring and Donate You Dive campaigns. They are currently focusing two major issues, sharks in Peril and marine debris. Sanitary Waste and Management:
Hazardous Waste and Management: http://www.epa.gov/osw/
Love Canal: http://www.epa.gov/history/topics/lovecanal/01.html
The Civil Action:
http://fracknation.com/ Due to a rapid increase in human population, more animals are becoming endangered. Endangered animals are animals in threat of becoming extinct. An animal becomes endangered as their populations decrease to such a low point that species can't reproduce and sustain their numbers. Populations are decreasing due to destruction of habitat. For example, deforestation of forests to build buildings, towns, malls, or to dig up resources destroys the habitats of these animals. Forests are being burned down as well, a method of deforestation, in which animals are left without homes, are killed in the process. Another factor in the endangerment of species is the chemicals from factories, cars, motorcycles, and buses being released into the atmosphere. This pollution can get into the water and fall as acid rain, putting animals who drink that water and live in those areas in danger. Animals are also hunted for food and clothing. For example, horses, sheep, and cattle are killed to obtain meat and leather and snakes are killed for their skin to be used in clothing. Endangered Species:
Movie Medicine Man:
Ichthyology: http://ichthyology.biodiversity.ku.edu/ Want additional information about the topics in this presentation? Medicine Man Movie In this movie, Dr. Robert Campbell, a reclusive research scientist living with a Brazilian native tribe in the Amazon, accidentally discovers a flower extract that cures cancer. However he has been unable to duplicate the formula. A pharmaceutical company sends biochemist Dr. Rae Crane into the Amazonian Rainforest to check on Dr. Robert Campbell after he cuts off outside contact, his wife and research partner having left him. Crane brings research supplies , but Campbell is upset that he was not given the research partner he had requested. He tries to send her home but Crane dismisses Campbell's attempts to spurn her, as her job is to evaluate whether the company should continue funding his research. Eventually, the two grow a bond and fight a race against time to find the cure for cancer before the rainforest frees are cut down by a logging company approaching. Fueled by a sick boy on the verge of death, they do everything possible to relocate the cure. Cold deserts are characterized by cold winters with snowfall and high overall rainfall throughout the winter and occasionally over the summer. They occur in the Antarctic, Greenland and the Nearctic realm. They have short, moist, and moderately warm summers with fairly long, cold winters. The mean winter temperature is between -2 to 4° C and the mean summer temperature is between 21-26° C Deciduous Forest These forests are found in the eastern half of Northern America, and the middle of Europe. Many are found in Asia such as in Russia, Japan, and East China. South America has two areas of deciduous forest. The average temperature is 50 degrees Fahrenheit. The average rainfall is 30-60 inches a year.There are four seasons in this biome, and animals use the trees as shelter . Tundra Tundras are among Earth's coldest, harshest biomes. Tundra ecosystems are treeless regions found in the Arctic and on the tops of mountains, where the climate is cold and windy and rainfall is scant. Tundra lands are snow-covered for much of the year, until summer brings a burst of wildflowers. Mountain goats, sheep, marmots, and birds live in mountain, or alpine, tundra and feed on the low-lying plants and insects. Hardy flora like cushion plants survive on these mountain plains by growing in rock depressions where it is warmer and they are sheltered from the wind. There is an average temperature of 10 to 20 degrees Fahrenheit. This supports a variety of animal species, including Arctic foxes, polar bears, gray wolves, caribou, snow geese and musk-oxen. The summer growing season is 50 to 60 days, when the sun shines 24 hours a day. The plants and animals that live in the harsh conditions of the tundra are essentially clinging to life. They are stresses like reduced snow cover and warmer temperatures brought on by global warming. The Arctic tundra is changing dramatically due to global warming. More southern animals like the red fox have moved onto the tundra. The red fox is now competing with the Arctic fox for food and territory, and the long-term impact on the sensitive Arctic fox is unknown. Fracking Video