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The Age of Exploration - The Portugese Vyages
Transcript of The Age of Exploration - The Portugese Vyages
Reasons for the Voyages
Aim: To examine The Portuguese Voyages
Prince Henry the Navigator
Prince Henry sent ships along the African coast. The captains kept records of their voyages.
They kept these records secret from other European countries that also wanted to find a sea route to the east.
They often returned with slaves and gold to help pay for the voyages.
When Prince Henry died in 1460, the Portuguese had sailed beyond Cape Bojador in modern day Morrocco, and gone as far as Sierra Leone.
The Portugese also discovered the Azores, the Canary Islands and the Cape Verde Islands.
However, they still had a long way to go before rounding the southern tip of Africa.
Prince Henry the Navigator
Why do you think the Portuguese Voyages took place?
The Portugese led the way in the Age of Exploration, which began in the 15th century when they drove Muslims out of their country. They attacked Muslim strongholds in Africa ad heard about gold mines further South.
Myths and Religion
The Portuguese wanted to defeat the Muslims and had heard about a great Christian kingdom in Africa. They hoped to join forces with its king Prester John.
They hoped to find undiscovered ports where no one would be able to compete.
The leader of the Portugese explorations was Prince Henry the Navigator.
He was the third son of the King of Portugal.
Henry set up a school for navigation in Sagres in southern Portugal.
He invited mapmakers, shipbuilders, and astronomers to plan the voyages along the cost of Africa.
They gathered information on the navigation instruments and ship building developments.
Can you name the improvements in shipbuilding and navigation?
Bartholomew Diaz Rounds the Cape
Diaz was about 30 years of age when he left Lisbon, Portugal in 1487 with two caravels and a store ship.
He followed the coast of Africa until he reached the mouth of the Orange River.
Soon after his ships were caught in a fierce storm that blew them southwards for nearly two weeks.
When the storm stopped Diaz sailed eastwards to reach the African coast. But it was not there.
Instead he turned northwards until he reached Africa.
He knew then that he had rounded the continent of Africa.
He called the great headland in southern Africa the Cape of Storms after his experiences.
He erected a padro (a stone pillar) there.
The King of Portugal gave the cape a new name - the Cape of Good Hope - because the Portuguese had turned the southern coast of Africa.
They hoped to reach India and the Spice Islands.
Vasco da Gama Reaches India
It was another ten years before the Portuguese eventually reached India.
The man chosen to lead the expedition was Vasco da Gama.
On 8 July 1497, da Gama and 170 men walked in procession through the streets of Lisbon to the docks.
Da Gama sailed with four ships, his flag ship the San Gabriel and three others.
After reaching the Cape Verde Islands, he sailed southwards into the Atlantic Ocean and far away from the coast of Africa to avoid the northerly current and winds.
He was out of sight of land for ninety six days before he reached the African coast.
He used the lines of latitude to work out when he should sail eastwards to reach the coast.
Vasco da Gama to India
Da Gama rounded the Cape of Good Hope.
He stayed close to land as he sailed northwards along the east coast of Africa.
He was guided across the Indian Ocean to Calicut.
Da Gama returned to Portugal after two year voyage.
He was given a title, pension and lands by the king.
Very soon the Portuguese sailed all the way to the Spice Islands.
Now the Portuguese could gain from trade with the east.
Results of the Portuguese Voyages
They set up trading posts and forts in Africa, India and the Spice Islands.
They defeated the Arabs and took control of the spice trade between Asia and Europe.
There was an increased supply of spices in Europe which reduced the price of he spices.
Portugal established a large empire in Africa, Asia and Brazil and grew rich and powerful.
The Portuguese language and culture spread to parts of Africa and to Brazil.
In the 17th century, a series of wars between the Portuguese and the Dutch resulted in the Dutch taking over the spice trade in Indonesia, including the Moluccas or Spice Islands.