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A WORD AND ITS PARTS: ROOTS, AFFIXES. AND THEIR SHAPES

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Diego Granja

on 31 August 2013

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Transcript of A WORD AND ITS PARTS: ROOTS, AFFIXES. AND THEIR SHAPES

A WORD AND ITS PARTS: ROOTS, AFFIXES. AND THEIR SHAPES
TAKING WORDS APART
KINDS OF MORPHEME: BOUND vs FREE
The MORPHEMES in the word HELPFULNESS do not have the same status.
HELP is the core of this word. It supplies the most precise and concrete element in its meaning, related with the words like HELPER, HELPLESS, HELPLESSNESS and HELPFUL.
HELP can stand on his own. It constitutes an utterance by itself. They are called FREE MORPHEMES.
With FUL and NESS cannot stand by themselves. They are called BOUND MORPHEMES.
EXAMPLES
a- Read-able leg-ible
Hear-ing audi-ence
En-large magn-ify
Perform-ance rend-ition
They contain a free morpheme… Similar meaning the morphemes are bound.

3.4.- MORPHEMES AND THEIR ALLOMORPHS
Many morphemes have two or more different pronunciations, called allomorphs, the choice between them being determined by the context.
KINDS OF MORPHEMES

ROOT, AFFIX, COMBINING PART
WAYS OF CLASSIFYING WORD- PARTS
Classify parts
Discuss relation to word meaning

Morphemes and allomorphs
Roots, affixes and combining forms
Preffixes and Suffixes

Allomorphy
How a morpheme is pronounced
Identification
Polymorphemic or not
Morpheme
Unit of meaning
Morphological structure and meaning seem closely
Relationship obscure
Plural of most English
nouns formed.
Many morphemes have two or more different pronunciations, called allomorphs, the choice between them being determined by the context.
Plural of most English nouns formed.

SINGULAR PLURAL -s suffix has three allomorphs
Cat Cats Cats and lamps /s/
Dog Dogs Dogs and days /z/
Horse horses Horses and judges /ɪz/ /əz/

When the preceding sound is a sibilant ( the kind of hissing or hushing sound hear at the end of :
Horse, rose, bush, church and judge) the /ɪz/ allomorph occurs.

Otherwise, when the preceding sound is voicelss, ie. Produced with no vibration of the vocal folds in the larynx (as in cat, rock, cup or cliff), the /s/ allomorph occurs.
Otherwise (ie. After a vowel or a voiced consonant, as in dog or day), the /z/ allomorph occurs.

Identifying Morphemes Independently of Meaning

Allomorphs or re mean “again” Ex.
Rewrite, reread, revisit
Phonetically : / ri/

Revive, return, restore, revise, reverse
Phonetically : / rI/ or /rə/

Conclusion: the mohpheme re means “ again” or “ backward movement”

A snag: same roots with different meanings. Example:
1) Return: to come or go back to a previous place
She left South Africa at the age of 15 and has never returned.
I have to re –turn the steaks on the barbecue

2) Restore: to return something or someone to an earlier good condition or position:
The neglected paintings have all been carefully restored.
Please, re-store thiese merchandises


We will focus on these smaller parts of words, generally called MORPHONES. (the area of grammar concerned with the structure of words and with relationships between words involving the morpheme that compose them technically called MORPHOLOGY , from the Greek word MORPHE “form, shape; and morphemes can be thought of as the minimal units of morphology.)
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