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The Mesopotamians

Hammurabi, Sargon, Ashurbanipal and Gilgamesh
by

Andrea Odiorne

on 26 February 2012

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Transcript of The Mesopotamians

Sumerian Era (3200 – 2000 BC)
City States – Uruk (Gilgamesh), Ur, and Lagash

Temple precincts -
housed priests/temple administrators, craftsman and slaves
location of schools
place of storage and manufacture of trade goods, trade location
served as state within a state, in pre-Sargon era could be independent

Social Structure
Priests, kings and prominent warriors (members of the families of priests and kings)
Specialists - administrators, merchants and artisans – dependent on priests
Free farmers – bad land, high debts
Slaves
Hammurabi (1792-1750 BCE)
Sargon (2334-2279 BC)
Stele
Propaganda
Kassite and Hittite Interlude (1600 – 1300 BCE)
"Thirty spokes
Share one hub.
Make the nothing therein appropriate, and you will have the use of the cart."
— Lao Tzu (Tao Te Ching)
Assyrians
(1300 – 612 BCE)
Ashurbanipal
No claim through heredity
Left in the river - raised by a gardener
"Rightful King" -- army
Tough Guy - Charisma - War Lord
Protection - Organization - Irrigation
Traditional Sumerian - Tribute
Empire - Permanent Administrators
Establishes Dynasty
Longevity
Centralization - Fragmentation
Old Babylonian Era - to 1600 BC
Moves Capital to Babylon
Elevates Marduk - God of Thunderstorms, Bablylon, Lord
Code of Hammurabi
Social Stratification - Palace dependents
Protect the Innocent
information, ideas, or rumors deliberately spread widely to help or harm a person, group, movement, institution, nation, etc.
Chariot (horse drawn, spoked wheels)
Kassite “Dark Age“
"calculated frightfulness"
612 Ninevah fell to united Babylonian – Median force
Ninevah
King of Assyria (668-627 BC)
Library (Epic of Gilgamesh)
“Whenever, in any of the seven regions of primary urban generation we trace back the characteristic urban form to its beginnings we arrive not at a settlement that is dominated by commercial relations, a primordial market, or at one that is focused on a citadel, an archetypical fortress, but rather at a ceremonial complex…” (Wheatley, pp.225-6)
I made Babylon's destruction more complete than by a flood...I demolished it with torrents of water and made it like a meadow - Sennacherib - 689BC
I tore tore out the tongues of many who plotted against me and then had them murdered. The others I smashed to death with the statues of their local gods.
Nebuchadnezzar (604-562 BC)
Ishtar Gate
Hanging Gardens
Babylonian Captivity

United Median and Persian Empires in 550 BC
Allowed the Hebrews to return to Jerusalem
Known for Diplomacy and Religious Tolerance

Cyrus the Great (576 BC–530 BC)
Full transcript