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FORMAL ORGANIZATIONS AND BUREAUCRACY
Transcript of FORMAL ORGANIZATIONS AND BUREAUCRACY
design by Dóri Sirály for Prezi
With a population of more than 103 million (CIA World Factbook,2013), Philippine society faces countless complicated tasks ranging from educating expectant parents to delivering the mail. Most of these tasks are carried out by large formal organizations. The largest formal organization is the government. It employs more than a million people in various agencies and the armed forces.
Organization is the relating of efforts and capacities of individuals and groups engaged in a common task in such a way as to secure the desired objectives with least friction and the most satisfaction of those for whom the task is done and of those involved in the enterprise.
Talcott Parsons (1960)
Organization is a human grouping or social unit deliberately constructed and reconstructed to meet specific goals.
John Gaus (in Allen,1958)
- defines organization as the arrangement of personnel for facilitating the accomplishment of some agreed purposes through the allocation of functions and responsibilities.
- Organization is a plan by which a group of people pools its efforts towards designated objectives through definition and division of activities, responsibilities, and authority.
Newbeck and Glasberg (2005, p. 93)
“People’s lives are shaped in important respects by the structure of organizations in which they are involved.”
Organizations – are by nature large, formal, with complex status network. These complex organizations make major contributions to the overall quality of life within the society. Members are treated as less important than when they are in a small group. These groups fill a great variety of social and personal needs. They become a powerful social tool that directs or coordinates many human actions to achieve certain goals.
Classifications of Organization
1. Formal Organization – a system of well-defined jobs each bearing a definite measure of authority, responsibility, and accountability.
- whole consciously designed to enable the people of the enterprise to work most effectively together in accomplishing their objectives.
- The members have to adjust to a rigid structure.
- Familiar type of this organization is voluntary association.
- An example is the Lions Club or Masonry.
2. Informal Organization – refers to the relationship of individuals due to similarity of likes, dislikes, emotions, needs, or attitudes.
- Existence is determined on account of human personalities and characteristics.
- Facilitates the accomplishment of objectives without necessarily undergoing the follow-the-channel method.
- In this kind of organization, relationship is more informal.
MEANING OF BUREAUCRACY
Shepard (1981) –
bureaucracy is characterized by a division of labor based on specialization, a hierarchy of authority, a system of rules and procedures, written records of activities, full-time jobs, and impersonal relationship.
Kornblum (2003) –
bureaucracy is a specific structure of statuses and roles in which the power to influence the actions of others increases as one nears the top of the organization
- This is in marked contrast to the democratic procedures used in other kinds of organizations.
Brinkerhoff & White (1988) –
bureaucracy is a special type of complex organization characterized by explicit rules and hierarchical authority structure, all designed to maximize efficiency.
– through bureaucratic organization, officials deliberately enact and modify policy to make the organization as formal as possible. In form, it is a formal, rationally organized social structure with clearly defined patterns of activity in which, ideally, every series of action is functionally related to the purposes of the organization.
Aspects of Bureaucratic Organization
Max Weber (1974)
– one of the pioneers of sociology.
- Wrote a classic analysis of bureaucracy that is essentially useful in the study of organizations.
- Identified six aspects of bureaucratic organization:
1. Positions with clearly defined responsibilities
– the day-to-day activities in pursuit of the objectives of the organization are well distributed in a fixed way as official duties.
2. Positions ordered in hierarchy –
in a bureaucracy, a hierarchy of office is arranged, in which there is a supervision of lower offices by the higher ones. Referred to as the “chain of command” drawn in an organizational chart often in the shape of pyramid.
3. Rules and precedents –
in a bureaucracy, norms are usually spelled out in written sets of regulations and rules. The office holder’s behavior is dictated by the organization’s formal regulations and rules, which are specific and which apply to definite situations and circumstances.
4. Impersonality and impartiality –
ideal official conducts his/her office in a spirit of formalistic impersonality, without haterd or passion, and hence without affection or enthusiasm.
5. The norm of efficiency –
bureaucracy develops a high degree of specialization of function within an organization.
6. A career ladder –
work in bureaucracy constitutes a career. It is systematic. There is a “system of promotions according to seniority, or to achievement, or both”.
Limitations of Bureaucracy
• Alienation –
term used to describe the sense of loss of contact and disconnectedness of individual members from other members brought about adherence to rules, hierarchies, and impersonal relationships.
• Ritualism –
people become robots because of the existence of rules and regulations.
- Robert Merton termed as “bureaucratic ritualism”, to signify a preoccupation with rules and regulations as ends in themselves rather than as means to achieve organizational goals.
• Incompetence –
employees who are successful at any level are likely to be promoted. However, when they reach a position when they are in over their heads and perform poorly, they no longer candidates for promotion. They are thereby doomed to a future of inefficiency.
• Inequality –
decision-making relegated only to few people whose decisions are passed down to the subordinate without consultation.
Problems of Bureaucracy in the Philippines
1. Nepotism and favoritism
2. Perpetuation of the spoils or patronage system
3. Rampant graft and corruption
4. Too much red tape
5. Laxity in supervision
6. Presence of factions and cliques
7. Inefficiency of some government officials and employees
8. Official misconduct
In spite of its shortcomings, bureaucracy in the Philippines will remain and will play a major role in the development of the country.