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Transcript of Lightbulb ICT
The liquid flows through the piping and passes through an expansive valve, this causes it to evaporate into a cold-low pressure gas. As the liquid changes to gas and evaporates, it absorbs heat from the inside of the building.
The fan blows air across metal fins that have been chilled as a result of the heating being absorbed. This causes the room to cool down, The gas then continues to the compressor to continue the cycle.
There are usually two sensors (temperature) that monitor the temperature of the refrigerant, allowing the system to control the amount of heat being let out of the system. There may be a pressure sensor that monitors the pressure of the refrigerant so that the valve can be controlled to reduce or increase the flow of refrigerant.
Most systems have temperature sensor in each of the rooms where the system operates. The systems control the heat loss from individual rooms by altering the speed of the fans or merely by switching them on or off according to the temperature. The person in the room may use a touch to input the temperature.
The temperature in each room is constantly monitored and if it is above the pre-set value, the fans for that room are switched on by the microprocessor (sending a signal to the actuator or stepper motor), if it is below the value, the fans remain off. Air Conditioning System continuous process control Types of process control This refers to processes that appear to be unending, for example he maintaining of temperature in confined surroundings. A refrigeration plant where it is necessary to maintain a constant low temperature uses continuous process control. Other examples are a refining process for petroleum and a paper machine with continuous output of paper onto rolls. These manufacturing processes are used to produce very large quantities of product per year. Also a thermostat which continuously controls the temperature in any room. PLC (Programmable logic controller): a type of computer or microprocessor that can read analogue and digital inputs and a set of logic statements is used to compare the input with pre-set values. PID (proportional-integral-derivative): It is algorithm. A closed-loop system is one with a physical variable, such as temperature, is being continuously monitored using a sensor connected to the PLC and the outputs from the controller affect the input. The purpose of the PLC being to make the input value equal to the pre-set one. PID is the best way to accomplish this. This is used in the processes where specific amounts of raw materials are combined together and mixed for a certain length of time. Batch processes are generally used to produce relatively small amounts of a product per year.
Gregg's bakery Batch process Control This is when specific items are produced. It is likened to an on/off or stop/start process.
Manufacture of Cars
Computers Discrete Process Control Computer control is used in two major medical applications - intense care and surgery - but both still require human intervention.
People are monitored by sensors which feed back information:
The computers pre-set with a range of values and the sensors keep comparing the data feed with the preset values . If the values go out of that range, an alarm is set off and someone comes to check it, that is why it is not computer control as we know it. The use of sensors and computers makes the process more accurate.
Robotic surgery is an extension of keyhole surgery that requires using robotic arms and cameras are a lot smaller than normal. The end effector is usually a scalpel. The surgeon wears goggles to connect him to see inside the patient.
reduce large scale invasive surgery
patients recover more rapidly
spend less time in hospital beds. Medical applications Car manufacture Computer-controlled robots are used in many industries.
Most robots are controlled by the use of actuators in the form of electric cars. The robotic arms are controlled by the use of DC.
The computer controls the movement of the are so that, using end effectors, a variety of jobs can be carried out.
Types of end effectors:
cameras to inspect work
welding guns to weld parts of the car body together
Drills to make holes in the car body.
spray guns to paint the car body.
sanders/polishers/finishers to produce a shiny finish after painting.
Industrial robots are designed to perform exactly the same operation repeatedly.
A robot arm carries out the following tasks on a car producing line:
painting car bodies
putting on car wheels
drilling the holes in car bodies
fixing rivets to car bodies
assembling the electric circuits in cars
inserting car engines.
In order that the robot knows how to do its job, the programmer guides the arm through each step by hand or by using a remote control. The computer stored the exact steps and can carry those exact steps every time as it is stored in its memory.
Robots are used rather than humans due to:
a robotic ar, has greater accuracy than a human
they do not get tired.
the whole process can be continuous. 1) Correspondents send their stories into the editorial office.
2) Once typed, they hand in or send their story in.
3) Then transmitted to the editorial staff
4) The editorial staff edit and then proofread for accuracy. It is then ready to be published.
Typesetting: This is the setting of the layout of the typed page. Layout has to be easy to read; correct font and size chosen. Also kerning (space between individual letters). The leading (space between lines on the page) has to be correctly defined to look right. Also size difference from title to writing has to be assessed. Before computers, people were employed to manually set out all the letters and layouts of the page. They used individual letter blocks which were inked up and pressed against the paper. Despite the use of computers, it is still quite challenging even on desktop-publishing packages. Noticeable between an amateur and pros. Once the page is set out it can be sent for plate making.
Transmitting completed pages: Once the editor agrees that it is all correct, they send it to the printing plant, 2 ways of doing this:
1) The page is printed and the image of the page is then burned onto light-sensitive film. The film is faxed to transfer the image to the print plant.
2) Some publishers have several printing plants. The complete newspaper is sent by satellite to all the other printing factories simultaneously. Uses of ICT in Publishing Computerised plate making: Images from the negatives are transferred to printing plates in much the same way as photographs are developed. Ultraviolet light is allowed to pass through the film negatives to expose the printing plate. When the plates are exposed to light, a chemical reaction occurs that allows the light-sensitive coating on the aluminium to develop the image.
Printing: The aluminium plate now has to be fixed to the actual printing press. The press consists of three cylinders. Most common way is web offset lithography. The word 'offset' refers to the plate not actually touching the paper. The plate cylinder has the ink on it which rolls onto a blanket roller leaving a layer of ink on the impression cylinder which has all the paper on it. Ict in working practices Teleworking is another name for working at home. 'teleworks' means that they do some or all of their work from working from home. New technology developments such as portable communication devices as well as home computer systems and networks have enabled people to become less tied to an office to do their work. Teleworkers can stay in contact with the office using a broadband connection or a virtual private network (VPN). Many use portable communication devices to communicate while away on business. In order to work from home, a teleworker needs:
a PC with Internet access
access to e-mail
a fax machine
a land line phone
a mobile phone
a printer/photocopier (either laser or inkjet).
Some also need video conferencing equipment and there may be need for a scanner if the work involves, for example, putting together artwork.
Some jobs are better suited for teleworking than others, e.g.:
professional services such as tax advice, legal advice and financial advice
proofreading of documents and books
translation of documents
technical and customer support
telesales and marketing.
Anyone of these will need word-processing and web-browsing software. Tax advisers would need to have spreadsheet and database software.
There are some questions which need to be asked to see if teleworking is right for the people, these consist of: what type of person are they? could they work well on their own? the employee would have to:
be able to manage their time well
be well motivated
have good communication skills
have good self-discipline
The employee has to organise how frequent employees need to keep in contact.
Teleworkers should be kept up to date with the same information their colleges at the office are receiving plus going to meetings.
Remote working teleworking is a major part of remote working, but there is also people that work at a distance from the main office, e.g. travelling salesmen, employees working in a temporary office, doctors on call and engineers working on site.
They would use:
PDAs or other handheld computers with wireless networking capability
laptops with wireless networking capability. This is the electronic equivalent to a conventional conference usually held in a conference suite, cometimes called to a face/to/face conference. The essential components of a videoconference are:
a standard PC with mouse and keyboard
a network connection
Members of the conference need to log on to the sytem or internet when the software is running they can normally see and hear all the delegates involved. U speak into a microphone and look at a webcam. Uses are:
teleworkers to communicate to their base office.
When it first came out, there was poor quality transmission, but now improved to better broadband and connection speeds.
2 types of video conferencing: each person has individual acess to the conference, or groups are involved rather than individuals. Videoconferencing This is the linking together of several people on a phone line so that they can all have a collective conversation. Possible over: mobile telephones, landlines telephones or voice over the internet protocol (VOIP - the use of phones connected through computers to the internet) but each participant must have a touch tone phone.
Minimum 3 people. Each person has a PIN that they have to key into the phone after they have dialed the phone number for the conference. Has to be booked with the phone company and they all have to agree on a day and time.
The person who organises the call is given 2 pins, one is the personal PIN and the other is the participants PIN. The organiser then tells the participants the times and the PINs. To start it the organiser calls the number and keys in the special PIN. Phone conferencing Instant messaging Instant messaging is the exchange of text messages between two or more people logged into a instant messaging (IM) service. It is interactive as people can reply straight away. It requires a user name and a password. First time u log in u send requests to the people u want to contact and then they accept. Then they select the individual they want to talk to. If they are both online at the same time, it turns into a conversation due to constant replies. Faster than e-mails and e-mails can take a few seconds or minutes to be sent. Although the screen display is very basic and doesn't have as many features as e-mail. Fax is short for facsimilie transmission. A fax machine is connected to a phone line. A document is scanned and then transmitted through phone lines to another fax machine which then prints it out. It requires a modem so tends to be slow. It is used when exact copies of originals are required, although the quality of the cope is sometimes not very good.
All in one printers tend to be used which are ink jet printers + fax machines.
Fax machines are being replaced by e-mail and other internet services, but in the UK, signed documents can't be sent by e-mail but must be by fax or handed in.
Instead of printing out a document and faxing a fax machine, the user 'prints' the document directly to fax software, which uses the modem or broadband to send the fax. The receiver either receives it on their fax machine or uses the same type of software to convert it into a document for storage.
Electronic faxing has the following advantages over manual faxing:
It saves the time of going to the fax machine to retrieve or send faxes.
Equipment costs are lower as there is no need for a fax machine.
Running costs are lower as there in no need for a dedicated fax line.
Confidential faxes are secure. On a manual fax, any worker might pick up a fax sent to someone else.
It is not necessary to be in the office to receive faxes as they can be downloaded remotely. Faxing and Electronic faxing Use of ICT in time management Time management is about using the most efficient way of completing tasks or projects. This needs to be done with an acceptable period of time but with the highest quality of output. Time management applies to all examples of businesses for example the manufacture of products, writing documents, providing services and making decisions. Sometimes outside experts may be brought in or the organisation may employ people as full time management. They could examine good practice as well as attending courses and gaining qualifications in this area. Identifying short and long term targets - setting up an ict department, there would be short and long term targets, example, hardware, software cables, serves, etc would all be short term where as song of the long term targets would be training the staff including teachers and admin.
Priorotising - it is hugely important when setting targets which are independent of each other.
Planning - thorough planing of any project is very beneficial and any possible herdles would be routed out with discussion and planning.
Decision making - is an important aspect and decisions need to be made at each stage of the project, good decision making early on can save much time.
Use of ICT - organisations benefit throught the use of software and communicationd evices such as faxes, telephones and even express delivery of conventional mail. Features of time management There are a number of software products that act as a stopwatch device. They allow users to click on a specific task and the computer periodicly reminds the user how long they have been working on that task. Some tasks can be carried out at the same time as others (parallel), some must be done and complteted before others can even be thought about (sequencial).
Construction Project Management
This method of project management is just not specific to buildings anymore, its applied in different types of projects. It involves making a critical path analysis to find the optimum time to be spent on individual tasks.
Thne critical path is the order in which tasks must be completed so that the entire project is completed on time. Arranging work load Validation rule Body Body Body Examples