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Epipelagic Zone

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samantha Ondatje

on 22 November 2013

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Transcript of Epipelagic Zone

Epipelagic Zone
Abiotic Factors
Biotic Factors
What living factors make up the epipelagic zone?
Thank You
What Is The Epipelagic Zone?
The epipelagic zone or "sunlight zone" is the uppermost part of the ocean where photosynthesis occurs.
Water Movement/Circulation
Two types of sources responsible for ocean circulation
Solar heating
Gravitational Pull
Weather
Weather is affected by the absorption of the ocean and addition to the atmosphere.
Pollution
How have humans harmed the epipalegic zone?
Secondary Consumers:
Fishes
*Smaller in size (Bony fishes)
*Some use counter shading as well.
Top Consumers:
Tertiary Consumers:
What will we explore?
Climate
Water Movement/Circulation
Weather
Human Involvement


Climate is controlled by the ocean and atmosphere working together.

Climate
What is the El Nino/La Nina?

How often does it occur?

How does this affect the ocean?

El Nino/La Nina
Physically they connect through heat, water and Momentum.
Chemically they connect through the process of greenhouse gas in the ocean.
Mean Sea Level
Movement of ocean tides and circulation patterns due to the effect of El Nino/ El Nina over the decades.

What changes the Sea level?

Rises 0.12 inches per year.
Surface Currents
The North Atlantic Drift and Gulf Stream are best known for the western boundary current.
Flow is 1 billion cubic feet which is 300 times the normal flow of the Amazon.
These are larger mammals of the food chain.



Seabirds
*Parasitic (Jaegers)
*Scavenger and predators

Larger fish
*Sailfish

OR
What causes surface current?

Why is salinity in the ocean so important?
It affects the Physical, Chemical, and Biological processes.
Salinity
Fun Fact:
The Dead Sea is so dense humans can't sink in it
.
Hydrologic Cycle
The movement of ocean water as it changes between a solid, liquid, and gas.
Waves are dependent on three things:
Wind speed
wind duration
Fetch
Wave Generation
Storms!!!
Hurricanes, Typhoons,
and Tsunamis.
(The Prefect Storm)
Sharks
Energy Flow
Whales
Whales
*What kind of relationship do whales have with barnacles??
*What kind of feeding are they know for?How are they able to locate their prey?
Primary Producers
Coral
*In communities where coral reefs appear, smaller fish and invertebrates feed on the mucus that is produced.

Phytoplankton
*require sunlight in order to photosynthesize. (10% consumers as well)
*EX: Diatoms and dinoflagellate
*Factors such as salinty, temperature, water depth, and wind. (growth rate)
Primary Consumers
Zooplankton
*Responsible for consuming phytoplankton
*Copepods are a members and are found everywhere throughout the ocean
* Types
Overfishing the ocean has showed a great increase in organism extinction.

Commercial Fisherman
The southern ocean is most
vulnerable.
Where does your trash end up?
Where do balloons go when you let them go in the sky?
The Vortex
The deep water horizon oil Spill in the gulf and the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill in Alaska
Both were a problem to clean up and still have oil roaming the waters
Ecosystems were harmed killing many organisms
They had three methods: Burning, Mechanical cleanup and chemical dispersant.
Oil Spills
Ice glacier melt off increases sea levels and it questions global warming.
The ice shelf is melting at a rate of 2.4 inches per day!!(livescience.com)
Glaciers will disappear by 2100
Ice Glaciers
*Schools of anchovies
FISH
Even Bigger fish
Small organisms
Symbiotic relationships
Seabirds
Pumpkinseed Sunfish
Full transcript