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Men In The Modern Education Periods
Transcript of Men In The Modern Education Periods
"Education either functions as an instrument which is used to facilitate integration of the younger generation into the logic of the present system and bring about conformity or it becomes the practice of freedom, the means by which men and women deal critically and creatively with reality and discover how to participate in the transformation of their world.”
-Paulo Freire, Pedagogy of the Oppresed
Philosopher. Sociologist. Educator.
"Society exists for the benefit of its members, not the members for the benefit of society."
Herbert Spencer, Individualism Versus Organicism
Men In The Modern Education Periods
Son of William George Spencer
Third Generation Educator
Wrote the "Principles of Psychology"
Published "First Principles", "Man Versus The State"
Attempted to compile his knowledge in "Synthetic Philosophy"
Advocated "Survival of the Fittest"
Principles Of Psychology
Explored a theory of the mind as a biological counterpart rather than an estranged opposite.
Explained that the human intelligence was something that had slowly developed according to its environment
Peers shunned his theory for its radicalism and liberalism as such, he was alienated from the community and was forced to publish his work at his own expense
exposition of his evolutionary principle of underlying principles of all domains of reality.
Explained evolution as an ongoing process by which matter is refined into an increasingly complex and coherent form which became his stand-point in his philosophy.
Also predated Darwin's works and by this time, Spencer was achieving an international reputation of great respect because of his theory being very broadly accepted.
Society is an Aggregate of individuals, and Change in Society could only take place only once the individual members of the society had changed and developed.
Born in poverty in the Northeastern Part of Brazil during the Great Depression of 1930
Became a grammar teacher while studying High School
Married to Elza Maia Costa de Oliveira
Had five Children, three became educators.
Was once branded a "Traitor" and imprisoned for 70 days.
Specializes in the Pedagogy of the Oppressed
Was a visiting professor at Harvard
Wrote "Pedagogy of the Oppressed"
Recognized for his impact on educational thoughts and practices
Significance/Beliefs/Principles of Friere
Enlightened our awareness of the causes and consequences of human suffering and the need to develop an ethical utopian pedagogy for social change.
Education could improve the human condition and counter the psychological effects of oppression.
Goal in educating the oppressed was humanization
His work was labeled controversial over the years
The world is divided into two parts; the oppressed and the oppressors.
Oppressors treat the oppressed as objects
By altering the banking educational process, the road to revolution could be taken
Liberatory Education is the answer to oppression
Liberatory Education is based on conscientization where learners move toward critical thinking to solve problems
There must be dialogue between two parties because it is the key to changing the oppressed from objects to subjects of their own learning.
Usage of culture circles which are groups of people working towards literacy by process of codification and decodification to create generative themes
The Benefit of representation is it allows students to analyze the situation in a non-threatening theoretical viewpoint.
Encourages teachers to be aware of teachable moments where learning can occur spontaneously.
Peer interaction and the use of 'peoples knowledge' as basis for curriculum.
Application of Praxis. Praxis is a process or cycle of action - reflection - action and includes the four elements of self-determination, intentionality, creativity and rationality.
Opposite to the elements of coercion, reaction, reaction and homogenity and chance which are commonly found in the pedagogues which lead to oppresion rather than empowerment.
Humankind can emerge from their submersion and acquire the ability to intervene in reality is unveiled
Described Cultural action and Cultural Synthesis as the act of learning about culture along with the people.
Goal of liberatory education is to take the oppressed and guide them into humanization
Cautions those who wish to be revolutionary leaders to not use the same antidialogical procedures used by the oppressors
Uses the nature of society as the focal point around which decisions about curricula are made.
Pedology of the Oppressed
Highly Controversial and banned by governments because of its critique of a certain educational method known as the 'banking' method. A careful analysis of the teacher student relationship at any level, inside or outside the school reveals fundamentally narrative character. This relationship involves a narrating Subject (the teacher) and patient listening objects (the students). Education Suffers from narration sickness.
The teacher talks about reality as if it were motionless and predictable. He expounds on a topic completely alien to the existential experience of the students.
The outstanding Characteristic of this narrative education, then, is the sonority of words not their transforming power.
Narration Leads the students to memorize mechanically the narrated account.
Education becomes an act of depositing.
In the "banking" concept of education, knowledge is a gift bestowed on to those who consider themselves knowledgeable
A. The Teacher Teaches, The Students are Taught
B. The teacher knows everything, the student knows nothing
C. The teacher thinks, the students are thought about
D. The teacher talks, the students listen. Meekly
E. The teacher disciplines, the students are disciplined
F. The teacher chooses and enforces his choice, the students comply
G. The teacher acts and the students have the illusion if acting through the action of the teacher
H. The teacher chooses the Program content, and the students, without any consultation, adapt to it.
I. The teacher confuses the authority of knowledge with his or her own professional authority, which he/she sets in opposition to the freedom of the students.
J. The teacher is the Subject of the learning process while the students are mere objects
In short, the "banking" method regards man as an adaptable and manageable being. It minimized or annuls the student's creative power thus stimulating the interests of the oppressors. The oppressors utilize their "Humanitarianism" to preserve a profitable situation. Their interests lie in "changing the consciousness of the oppressed, not the situation which oppresses them." for the more the oppressed can be led to adapt to that situation, the more easily they can be dominated.
Freire points to a Marxist Idea, which is in fact free of any so-called communist or social values.
According to Marx, the motor force of history is not located with any supra-human agency, be it "Providence" or the "Objective Spirit." Men make their own history. "It is necessary that the weakness of the powerless is transformed into a force capable of announcing justice. For this to happen, a total denouncement of fatalism is necessary. We are transformative beings and not beings for accomodation." - Paulo Freire