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C & D. Looking back at Human Bio Cultural and Social Evolution

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Transcript of C & D. Looking back at Human Bio Cultural and Social Evolution

Biological and cultural evolution
Objective:

Understand the development of self as end product of socialization and enculturation.

Contextualize the content, processes and consequences of enculturation and socialization.

Promote protection of human dignity, rights and the common good
Socialization for Sex Role
“My first playmates were my brothers since I had no sister. I tried to join their games, which were of course, boy’s games. I joined their tug of war and enjoyed the challenge. Until at the end of the day. I would come home crying because I got wounded in the skirmish. Father would then scold the boys for being inconsiderate of me, a girl; and mother would tell me that I was supposed to play their games because I was a girl. On my birthday, my mother gave me a huge box containing toys for playing house. My mother tried to impress upon me the virtues and behavior expected of my being a girl, like modesty, helpfulness and neatness. Such was my first distinction between feminine and masculine roles.”



-Excerpt from a student’s term paper


Theories of Personality Development
Various theories have been formulated explaining the development of personality. However, we shall just limit our discussion to three theories: Freudian Theory, cultural determinism held by cultural anthropologists, and symbolic inter-actionism held by some sociologist and social psychologist


C. Looking back at Human Bio Cultural and Social Evolution
D. Becoming a Member of a Society
D. Becoming a Member of a Society
LAURENCE MCQUARRIE F. MARBELLA
Objective:

Trace the biological and cultural evolution of early humans

Understand the value of artifacts in interpreting the system

Appreciate and reflect on the contribution of the past as part of becoming human
EVOLUTION THEORY
Theory that believes that all forms started from simple forms and transformed to complex ones. Charles Darwin (The Origin of Species)
THEORY OF NATURAL SELECTION
Species with favorable characteristics, and were able to withstand changes in the environment, are more likely to pass on these characteristics to their offspring “SURVIVAL OF THE FITTEST”
Socio – political evolution
Chiefdoms (Megalithic culture)
Neolithic revolution

Rise of states
Democratization
The silent homosexual, who is married and has children but hides a secret lover somewhere; the screaming, screeching hairdresser who has no qualms about his sexual preference; the effeminate but dignified artist who carefully selects the social circles he moves around in; the scared teenager who would rather die than let his parents and friends know how he daydreams of the handsome basketball player rather than the pretty cheerleader; the macho dancer who was hired into the homosexual lifestyle by virtue of his occupation; all these are examples of different stages and types of homosexuality. There is a great debate on the causality of this condition. Do the elevated levels of certain hormones cause the homosexual activities among men, or do homosexual activities cause the elevated levels of these hormones? To what extent does a dominant mother and/or an absentee or ineffective father play a role in the shaping of the homosexual personality? Does one traumatic homosexual experiences predispose a person to future same-sex experience? Is homosexuality hereditary or purely environmental? All there issues arise because homosexuality appears to be one of the most commonly observed and most openly accepted deviant behaviors.

- Ma. Teresa C. Panopio


(The introductory quotation is an excerpt from an essay on homosexuality, a condition which is considered as different or deviating from conventional behavior. Despite the general tendency of the socialization process mechanisms of social control to enforce conformity, there are instances of variations, disregard for, defiance of, nonconformity or flaunting of the social norms or established standards of the group. These forms of behavior that violate the norm are called deviant behavior


Components of culture:
Norms
These are the guidelines people are supposed to follow in their relation with one another; these are shared rules of conduct that specify how people ought to think and act. (Homans, 1950)
Types of Norms:
Folkways, Mores and Laws Values –

Belief or feeling that is widely shared & considered an important part of community or group identity


Statuses and roles
Social Status
refers to the position an individual occupies in society and implies a set of rights and duties.
Ascribed status and achieved status

Roles
is acting in accordance with the expected norms attached to a particular position
What is Personality?
The account of a student given above illustrates an experience in the socialization process whose end product is personality. Sometimes we hear remarks like a person has a lot of personality while another has no personality (walang personalidad). The truth is that an individual does not have more personality than another.
Within each individual is an organized of attitudes, traits, and habits which make up his or her personality. What is meant perhaps when one says that a person has a lot of personality is that he or she is outgoing, aggressive, friendly and with much verve. On the other hand, one who is described as not having personality may be reticent, uncharismatic, sloppy or shy.
Determinants of Personality Formation
The determinants in personality formation are biological inheritance, geographic environment, social environment, and cultural environment


Biological inheritance
transferred from parents to offspring through the mechanisms of the genes found in the chromosomes of the sex cells is composed of the biological structure, psychological process, reflexes, urges, capacity, intelligence, and traits such as pigmentation and stature.
Geographic environment-
refers to location, climate, topography and natural resources. Geography may be responsible for the different experiences in adjustment to the physical world, and therefore, may have some influence upon the experiences and personality of the individual.
Cultural and social environment
are intertwined. The cultural environment refers to the learned ways of living, the norms of behaviors- folkways, mores, laws, values, ideas, and patterned ways of group. Cultural norms are present once the child is born and constantly impinge on him or her.
Freud’s Theory of Socialization
Freud’s theory is a form of biological determinism which holds that socialization is a process characterized by the internal struggle between the biological components and the social cultural environment.
Freud held that personality consisted of three major systems, namely; id,ego, and superego.
The id is the biological component which is the source of a number of drives and urges (satisfaction of basic needs or pleasure principles)
The ego is the mediator between the needs of the individual and the world of reality and strives to delay tension until the suitable environment exists. (cognitive and intellectual process are controlled by the ego)
Superego- the moral arm of personality representing the traditional rules, values, and ideals of society.

Oral stage (birth to 1 year)- in this stage, eating is the major source of satisfaction. Frustration or overindulgence at this stage can lead to overeating or alcoholism in adulthood.

Stages of development according to Freud
Anal stage (1-3 years)-the influencing factor at this stage in personality development is toilet training. The result of fixation at this stage are personalities who are grasping and stingy
Phallic stage (3-6 years) the greatest source of pleasure comes from the sex organs. This is the time when the child desires parents of the opposite sex, so that boys desire their mothers and girls desire their fathers. (Oedipus complex and Electra complex)
Latency period (6 years-Adolescence) in this stage, children turn their attention to people outside their families like teachers and friends and erotic impulse are dormant
Genital stage (Adolescence and beyond) the sexual impulse become active again and the individual focuses on the opposite sex, looks around for a potential marriage partner, and prepares for marriage and adult responsibilities.

Culture and Personality
Franz Boas, Margaret Mead, Ruth Benedict, Ralph Linton, Cora DuBois and Edward Sapir was the proponent of this theory. Boas ‘view is that personality development is a result of learning what is found in the culture and that significant differences in personality are learned.
Symbolic Interactionism
The theory of symbolic interactionism is based primarily on the works and ideas of George Herbert Mead and Charles Horton Cooley and later on expounded by other social psychologist
The basic idea in this theory is that personality is a result of the interaction between individuals mediated by symbols or, in particular, language. The distinctive attributes of human behavior grow from people’s participation in varying types of social structure which depend, in turns on the existence of language of behavior.
Development of social self and generalized others are important
Development of the Social Self- The human infant is helpless and without a sense of self. According to Mead (1934), the self emerges in the process of socialization- a process of interaction and social activity- mediated by language

The Looking Glass Self
The ability of children to visualize themselves through the eyes of others, to imagine how they appear to others. Is what Cooley calls the “looking glass self” or the Social Self.
In childhood, the family, friends, teachers, classmates, and peer groups exert a great influence in forming a child’s self-concept. They constitute his or her primary group or form a part of what is called “Significant Others”.
Children are also able to respond to a number of individuals in the group and integrate the various rules or set norms of the group and integrate the various rules or set of norms of the group. This takes place in what Mead (1934) calls the period of the generalized others
The Process of Socialization
How an infant develops into a functioning social being emerges with a personality is called socialization. Human beings are born without any concept of self. They do not know the parts of their body, what to eat, what to do, what to believe in and how to communicate. But they are born into a social world with its ready-made culture. The people around them instruct them what to do, what to believe in, how to behave, and even how to feel through a system of reward and punishment.
The culture’s symbols and ways of classifying experience are taught to children through the medium of language so they begin to interact with others and share in the culture’s common stock of symbols, norms, and values.
This process by which children become participating and functioning members of society is socialization.
Conformity and Deviance
A person who deviates, especially from norms of social behavior; a thing, phenomenon, or trend that deviates from an expectation or pattern.
Deviant is relative
What is deviant for one group maybe acceptable to another group. Abortion, pre- marital sex, polygamy and divorce do not constitute in some societies, but are strongly disapproved and punished in other society.
Deviant may be tolerated, approved or disapproved. The positively overt and upwardly persons like the saint, hero, and one with exemplary conduct are approved by the society. 

Deviant is also a pathological phenomenon, as in the case of mental illness or psychological disorder individuals.
The biological explanation states that deviant behavior is a result of aberrant genetic traits, as in cases such as homosexuality, criminality, and mental illness.
The psychological explanation is that deviant behavior is brought about by inner conflicts or by inability to control one’s inner impulse or failure to structure one’s behavior in an orderly way.
Social Control
Refers to the measure and pressures designed to ensure conformity to the approved standards to the approved standards of behavior in a group or society


Types of social control:
formal
promotions bonuses certificates of merits
citation of awards suspensions or expulsion
informal
approval and praising denial of affection
bestowal of affection expression of opinion
Disapproval gossip reprimand
Merton (1965)
explains deviance as the result of anomie in contemporary modern industrialized societies. He holds that the acquisition of material success in the forms of wealth and education are the accepted status goals in modern societies but the institutional means or norms for achieving these legitimately are limited. The poor and lower classes, which usually includes Negroes, Chicanos, and other disadvantaged ethnic groups, have limited access to such goals so that anomie results. The classes thus make illegitimate adaptations to achieve the culturally prescribed goals of success.
Merton cites the following types of deviant behavior and the modes of individual adaptation.
Conformist are those who accepts both the culturally approved goals like enjoying a high standards of living, but disregards the institutionalized means to achieve them. Criminals who wish to have more wealth and those who commit graft and corruption to achieve a high standards of living falls under this category.
Ritualists are those who give up the cultural goals but follow the prescribed norms, even if they get only a pittance in return, like the bureaucratic robot or the religious fanatic.
The retreatist are those who abandon both cultural goals and the prescribed means to achieve them and try to set up new norms. The rebels, the alcoholics, the drug addicts, and the hippies belong to this category.
The Conflict Theory (Horton and Hunt 1984)
focuses on the heterogeneous nature of society and the differential distribution of political and social power. A struggle between social classes and class conflict between the powerful and less powerful groups occur.
Control theory (Clinard and Meir 1979)
is another theory which explains the occurrence of deviance but is largely applicable to delinquency, youth crime and suicide. The theory asserts that the deviance is learned in the same way as conformity is learned in the process of socialization, whereby one acquires norms, social roles, and self concept.
However… social deviation performs some positive functions also, which are as follows:


1. A number of social deviation are the outcomes of legitimate and conventional controls

2. Social deviance makes people aware of the possible danger emanating from such deviation

3. The recognition of deviance makes a group aware of the limits of tolerance they will have for some standards of norms.

4. A certain amount of deviance may ensure the safety of some persons and minimize the strain on society.

5. Deviation may serve as a warning device for some imperfection or faults in the society which may cause discontent and unrest and lead to changes that intensify morale and efficiency.
Social Control
In order to prevent the occurrence of deviant behavior, effective means of social control are used in the socialization process. In fact, a function of socialization is to ensure conformity to the norms and values of the group so that the behavior of the members are within the range of tolerance of societal and group norms
Social control refers to the measures and pressures designed to ensure conformity to the approved standards of behavior in a group of society (Horton and Hunt 1984)
Internalization of group norms- persons are made aware of what is expected of them by the group and they develop the desire to conform to the norms.
Societal reactions through external pressures in the form of sanctions when they are deviations from the norms. (fearful of negative reactions from others, like harsh opinions, or being the object of gossip)
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