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Andean Museum Project
Transcript of Andean Museum Project
Hunter Kornegay Andean Museum Project Makaya Endelman Different Social Classes and Different Clothing The Andean/Inca empire had ways to show how important someone was based on there clothing, head wear, and places that they lived. This image is a tomb of the late Atahualpa, an Andean/Inca emperor. He is wearing a gold fringe head dress that shows he is the emperor, the most powerful in his village and that he rules everything.
The emperor is said to have been directly associated with Inti, the sun god, the emperors sons were chosen to be the next emperor so that they would always have someone in office that was directly correlated to Inti ("Inca Empire," Microsoft, Encarta). William McGraw Goverment and Society This picture is of the Chimu civilization’s death mask that was found on an Inca dig site. In 1465-1470, the Chimu civilization was captured by the Inca and the Inca used the newly captured empire for its own benefits (Pauls, “Chimu”). This picture is displaying the quipu. Quipu is the numerical system developed by the Incas that is used to record large amounts of data. The Incas did this by getting pieces of string and tying knots into them. They could use this system to keep track of anything. (Morrison, “Inca Artifacts”) This is a drawing of the last ruler of the Inca Empire, Atahualpa, begging the Spanish Conquistador Francisco Pizarro to show mercy (n.p., “Inca Pictures”). Francisco Pizarro eventually murdered the Incan ruler and destroyed the rest of the empire (n.p., “Francisco Pizarro”). This picture is of mummified Inca king’s head. It was found in South America among one of the temples that the Incas made for their kings. The reason this king’s head is unique is that it is twice of what an average man’s head would be. This photo was taken from a private museum by Dr. Glenn Kimball. (Kimball, “Ancient American” #34, pages 36-38) This picture is of another mummified head. This one is covered in gold headgear. In the background you can see other objects such as armor, weapons, and other golden artifacts on display. This is another photo taken by Dr. Glenn Kimball. (Kimball, Ancient American #34, pages 36-38) This is a poncho that was very popular for men to wear in AD 1000 (George Gustav Heye Center, Infinity of Nations). To me this shows how big of an industry textiles were, there were taxes for textiles and it helped the economy financially so that there was so much more money for other parts of the empire to use (Mosley. “A Brief Inca Economics Lesson.”). Deimling, Kate. Atahualpa, Fourteenth Inca, 1532. 15 September 2012. George Gustav Heye Center, Nazca poncho. AD 1000. The National Museum of the American Indian, New York. Religion in the Andes Hunter Kornegay This is a 4,000 year old carving of a staff god. It had fangs, a cat-like face, a snake in one hand, and a staff in the other. The staff was supposed to show leadership.
It was found in a graveyard. It was found by a couple when they discovered said graveyard. It was a jar that was used during sacrifices to the “mountain god”. It has a bunch of random people on it with one severed head on the bottom.
It was used by being used to catch blood when they sacrificed someone. They may also drink the blood of the dead person. This sacrificial knife belonged to the Chimu and was used for sacrifices as I stated before. The figure on top was supposed to represent the “sun god” and made of gold.It was used during sacrifice but it is not known whether it was used on animal or human. This was a small human figurine that was found buried near someone who I guess was sacrificed. I think that because it was supposed to serve as “companion” for those who were sacrificed.These dolls were made out of cast and metal. The dolls had head pieces that were mainly worn by nobles so I guess thats what the dolls were supposed to represent. Sarah Jones Resources and Geography These skirts that are colored are called 'polleras' Andean women often wear these one on top of the other on special occasions, sometimes there will be up to 10 worn at a time.
The style of the polleras can sometimes tell where the women who wears it is from (Traditional Dress). 'Women from Rumira Sondormayo wearing slightly different polleras, or skirts.' Threads of Peru. Web. 16 Sept 2012. This is a picture of a 'chullo' in the Andes men almost always wear hats. The type of hat depends on where they live or the region of the Andes they live in.
Some regions even have less decorated hats like in the Sacred Valley people will where sombreros with cloth on it (Traditional Dress). Groth-Anderson, Henrik. "Chullo". Threadsofperu.com. 2012. Web. 16 Sept 2012. Works Cited Page: Kimball, Dr. Glenn. “Ancient American” #34, pages 36-38. Bibliotecapleyades.net. N.d. 13 September 2012
“Francisco Pizarro”. Biography.com. N. d. 13 September 2012
How Stuff Works. N.d. Web. 13 September 2012
Morrison, Tony. Southamericanpictures.com. N.d. Web. 13 September 2012
Pauls, Elizabeth Prine. Britannica.com. 25 January 2007. Web. 13 September 2012
“Inca Civilization.” about-peru-history.com. Web. 2008-2012
"Inca Empire," Microsoft, Encarta. Online Encyclopedia 2003
http://encarta.msn.com 1997-2003 Microsoft Corporation. All Rights Reserved.
11 september 2012.
“Oldest evidence of Andean religion.”Nature.com.Web.9 Sept 2012
“Traditional Dress.” Threadsofperu.com. 2011. Web. 16 Sept 2012.
Mosley, Michael. “A Brief Inca Economics Lesson.” Pg. 65-74.The Incas and Their Ancestors. 16 Sept 2012.
Santuci, Maureen. The chakana: The meaning of the Inca Cross. Peruthisweek.com. 10 August 2011. Web. 15 Sept 2012.
"The Discovery of Machu Picchu." By Hiram Bingham. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Sept. 2012. <http://www.rediscovermachupicchu.com/mp-discovery.htm>.
"Shawl Pin with Triangular Decoration (Late Horizon, Inca, 1476-1534Â A.D.)." About.com Art History. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Sept. 2012. <http://arthistory.about.com/od/from_exhibitions/ig/Machu-Picchu/Shawl-Pin-with-Decoration.htm>.
“THE AMAZON BASIN: Amazing Facts and Figures.” wcupa. n.p, n.d. Web. 11 Sep. 2012. Santucci, Maureen. “A painted chakana”. Flickr. 10 August 2011. Web. 16 September 2012. The Andean cross or the Chakana, pictured above is one of the most known and important symbols ov=f the Inca civilization. The three animals pictured on the Chakana are a snake a puma and a condor, the snake represents the underworld, puma all of the humans, and the condor represents the gods.
These animals have been pictured on multiple things in the Andean civilization, including artwork and architecture from that time. Jamal Barber Gold was a main trade material for the andeans, They traded it to other countries in exchange for resources. They also used the gold to create pottery and jewelry such as this nose ring. Gold was also used in the architecture of buildings and to decorate higher classed people. The Andean people also believed wearing gold made them closer to god(Inca Jewelry). Rope bridges were used whenever the roads meant valleys or gorges. The bridges were very important for delivering and receiving messages. The ropes for the bridges were made from natural fibers that were woven together in sets of three. This continued until the rope reached the desired width length and height. The last andean bridge is located in the town of huinchiri (Inca roads and Chaquis). Instead of money the Andeans traded paid for things by trading crops,textiles, and other things that they made.The Andeans also used labor as a form of payment. They were very advanced in economy with few people being poor nor of lower class. A favorite thing for inca’s to trade was gold.(inca trade and economy) Life in the Andes The chaquitaclla is an Andean farming tool that is still used to this very day. Farming was an essential part of Andean expansion. Farming on the highlands particularly affected the stability and growth of the empire. Many of the equipment used was basic but effective. The chaquitaclla was basically a small foot plow and the most important farming tool. It was designed with a pole about 2m long with a pointed bronze or wooden end as well as a handle or curve near the top and a footrest near the bottom (Inca tools ancient inca farming techniques of traditional Peru). After the Spanish conquest of the Inca empire, all the Intihuatana that could be found were destroyed except the on that was discovered in Machu Picchu. Because, the Spanish could never find Machu Picchu, this rock has remained in good condition for a long time, until today! Unfortunately a small part of this artifact was broken off during the filming of a beer commercial. Since then, the Peruvian authorities wont let such activities with the sacred rock go on.The Intihuatana Stone's name in English means "The Hitching Post of the Sun", the Incas believed that the stone can hold the sun in its place along its annual path in the sky. The sun almost stands at the pillar at midday on March 21st and September 21st, when the equinoxes occur (daytime equals night time). Then, no shadow is cast at all. The Amazon is one of the largest rivers in the world and is in one of the most developed Rainforests in the world. This is a rock that came from the river.The Amazon river floods annually from the Andes Mountains snow melting in hot weather. When the Amazon floods, it takes the nutrients it got from the mountains and fertilized the land, making farming for the Andean Civilization a bit easier (THE AMAZON BASIN: Amazing Facts and Figures) This is a rock wall on the Andes Mountain. Many civilizations were centered around these mountains and the Pacific Ocean including the Inca Empire.
The Andean Civilization used their tools and made these mountains an advantage. They had carved staircases into the mountains to move from place to place on the mountain and to get to the Amazon easier (1D. Basic Features of Early Civilizations) The farming tools the Incas used were important. There were simple, but effective, and are still used by Peruvians to this day.The chaquitaclla was the most important of all the Inca farming tools. The Incas would dig the end into the ground using their arms and foot, pushing the chakitaqlla upwards to break the dirt. The chaquitaclla was mostly effective in the narrow Inca terraces (Inca Tools: Ancient Inca Farming Techniques of Traditional Peru). On the Pottery, you can see a man casting out a fishing line and catching a fish with it. the Andean Civilization depended greatly on fishing since it was right next to the Pacific Ocean and the Amazon River (1D. Basic Features of Early Civilizations). The End