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Armenian Genocide

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Jayashri Viswanathan

on 22 January 2015

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Transcript of Armenian Genocide

The Armenian Genocide
(1915~1918)

By Jayashri Viswanthan, Kane Tian, Ria Tomar, and Shareen Chang
Historical Events and Context
Participants
Perpetrators
Upstander
Ottoman Turks
Mehmet Talaat Pasha
Who: leader of Young Turk Party, organizer of Armenian genocide, extremely powerful
Why: accused Armenians of treason and disloyalty --> Armenians must be eliminated
Identity and Membership
working for Turkish government from very young age and nationalism
Obligations:
Young Turk movement
Committee of Union and Progress (CUP)
Turkish Gov. (ally with Germany)
leads to
believes genocide is clear answer
"Turkey is taking advantage of the war in order to thoroughly liquidate (grundlich aufzaumen) its internal foes, i.e., the indigenous Christians, without being thereby disturbed by foreign intervention. "
During German Embassy in 1915:
Ambassador Henry Morgenthau
Ambassador Henry Morgenthau
Who: US Ambassador to Ottoman Empire during Armenian Genocide and WWI
Henry Morgenthau
urged US government to send humanitarian relief during genocide



James L. Barton and Cleveland H. Dodge start Near East Relief
$117M assistance
Replying to Ambassador on the Armenians:
"What on earth do you want? The question is settled. There are no more Armenians."
Obligations: US gov., Turkish gov., Armenian people
Bystanders
Kurds
allowed & accepted massacres
payment in exchange for information
Rescuer
Fridtjof Nansen
Was it a genocide?
Yes.
1) CLASSIFICATION
Christian Armenians
non-Muslims and Muslims
Armenians=Christians
treated like inferiors
Ottoman Muslims resented Christians especially
bipolar: intermarriage banned
2) SYMBOLIZATION
Period 3
red headgear/shoes
"infidel"
rendition (no color pictures) of Armenian in Ottoman Empire
3) DEHUMANIZATION
huge propaganda campaign by government/religious officials
"[Turks] are being killed on Crete, slaughtered on Samos, masssacred in Rumelia...But it's not the Greeks,
Armenians
, Bulgarians, Vlachs, Jews, Arabs or Albanians who are sent there, is it" (qtd. in Akçam 33)?
MASSACRES
80,000-300,000 Armenians killed
Cilician massacre Armenian victim
Armenian children in Adana
4) ORGANIZATION
5) POLARIZATION
Committee of Union and Progress
lead to fedâiin, would murder opponents of CUP
1911 congress: plans for genocide
Special Organization
killing units trained in Istanbul
organized the Special Organization: representatives from CUP Central Committee and other departments
extremists Ismail Enver, Mehmed Talaat, Ahmed Djemal took control of government
Turkish Hearth Society, Turkish Strength, and Tanin all spread polarizing propaganda about "poor Turks, prosperous Armenians"
Turks losing war
blamed Armenians ("traitors")
1)
2)
3)
4)
CUP leaders
Ahmed Djemal
6) PREPARATION
Armenian property confiscated
declared a suspect national group
disarmed Armenians
Armenian men forced into army
deportations/concentration camps begin
deportation camp
7) EXTERMINATION
Apr. 24, 1915, 300 Armenian leaders arrested and murdered
marches toward Syrian Desert
100s of miles, several months
Special Organization units + Turkish gendarmes
robbed, sexually violated, kidnapped
600,000-1.5 million died
8) DENIAL
orders to bury dead (hide them from photographers)
leaders of genocide fled to Germany
Turkey Nationalist government denied genocide occurred
suppressed discussion
Turkey blames Armenians, say they committed "atrocities"
destroying evidence of Armenians' presence in Turkey by destruction of buildings + cities
government prevents recognition/commemoration of genocide
digging up hidden bodies
after WW1
helped move 320K Armenians
“The history of the human race is a continual struggle from darkness into light."
Restoration
400 CUP officials arrested
But escaped charges, fled abroad
Soghomon Tehlirian killed Talaat

Treaty of Sevres
peace treaty signed in August 10th, 1920
Ottoman Empire lost huge amounts of land
Armenia became independent
In 1922, Soviet Union ruled Armenia until 1991
They were compressed into a small area
Lived in bad condition under Soviet government
Became independent again in 1991
Nansen Fridtjof
A rescuer
High Commissioner of the League of Nations
Created "Nansen Passports"
Helped 320,000 Armenians
Treaty of Lausanne
Peace treaty signed in 1923, by allied powers and Turkey
International recognition of Republic of Turkey
Ignored and denied the Armenian Genocide till today
Surp Giragos
First Church to be revived in Turkey after being in ruins for 20 years
seen as a government campaign
Leaders of Union and Progress (1908)
The Rule of Sultan Abdüllhamid
It has been 100 years and this genocide is still unrecognized by the Turkish government...
murder within his court circles
known to make hasty decisions
Tanzimat
policy of reform and centralization designed to reorganize the state in central form and make all Ottoman subjects equal before the law
received fierce hatred from Muslim Ottomans
bred discontent because the empire was accustomed to autonomy (self-governing society)
threat to social hierarchy system
The ARF and the OCUP
the OCUP or CUP (Ottoman Committee of Union and Progress)
the ARF (Armenian Committee)
both wanted to dethrone the sultan
originally enemies
working together rekindled rivalry
Prince Sabaheddin
opened conjoined committee of the ARF and CUP
wanted to create and empire where Armenians would have the same rights as Turks
people believed his plan would lead to a division of the empire where non-Turks would benefit above all the others
Ottoman Empire 1908-1915
Young Turks led a rebellion against the sultan in 1908
empire was furious
1909 Adana massacre where 15,000-30,000 Armenians were killed
A couple years later the Balkan War began
Ottoman Empire lost 85% of their European land and they blamed this loss on the Armenians and carried out the Armenian Genocide
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