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Napoleon Bonaparte: A Power-Hungry Tyrant
Transcript of Napoleon Bonaparte: A Power-Hungry Tyrant
He gained popularity among the French population through many victories in battle.
In 1799, Napoleon carried out a coup d'etat, which was a plan to overthrow the government. This coup d'etat resulted in a new constitution, known as the French Consulate. In this constitution, Napoleon established a three person consulate placing himself as First Consul.
Napoleon held most of the power in the French government at this time. However, he desired more power. In 1802, he appointed himself Consul for Life.
On December 2, 1804 he named himself Napoleon I, Emperor of France. Napoleon now had control over the entire French government. Napoleon's rise to power put forth numerous changes and reforms in France:
1. The Concordat of 1801
2. France's Educational System
3. Napoleonic Code Napoleon's Second Reform Education
Napoleon installed a new education system during his reign.
He believed in an educational system of merit. He also believed that education at the secondary level was very important.
Napoleon established thirty lycées throughout France. The lycées were schools that offered educational opportunities greater than those of the secondary schools. Students would later continue on to an education in military or civil studies.
Napoleon used government money to improve the educational system in his empire, resulting in more adherents and an increase in power.
With this increase, people began to support everything Napoleon wanted to change, granting him even more power and freedom to make as many changes as he wanted.
His hidden motive for making education a priority was to ensure that the younger generations would practice patriotism and loyalty to the state. The purpose was to deter anyone from overthrowing Napoleon and his government in the future. Napoleon's Third Reform Napoleonic Code
Napoleon created this code to ensure equality before the law, freedom of religion, and abolition of feudalism.
The code was a Napoleonic hybrid of liberalism and conservatism.
It consisted of 400 codes, and was considered Napoleon's greatest achievement.
A disadvantage of this code was that it didn't grant all people equal freedom, even though it may have seemed to at the time.
This code limited the freedom of women to make choices without the consent of their husbands. After the Napoleonic Code was placed, women were forbidden to make a will without the consent of their husband, forbidden to donate money without authorization from their husbands, and were forbidden to own any property. These were some of the laws that discriminated against women. How did Napoleon Treat People Who Were Close to Him? Napoleon made each of his seven siblings monarchs to spread the Bonaparte family's power.
He divorced his wife Joséphine because she was unable to produce an heir. He chose to marry again in hopes of having a son.
Napoleon later married Marie Louise, Archduchess of Austria.
He did not marry Marie out of love, but hoping to form an alliance with Austria.
Napoleon acted as a devoted Christian, however his goal was to gain the support of the higher clergy and the religious population of France for his own benefit.
Napoleon abandoned his troops during the Egyptian Campaign in 1798 after hearing word of a young revolutionary in France trying to overthrow Napoleon and his government. He left his soldiers to fight the Egyptians without his direction.
"Friendship is only a word; I love nobody; no, not even my brothers."
- Napoleon Bonaparte 3 Reforms Napoleon Placed in France Napoleon's First Reform Battle of Borodino Russia was one of the few countries that refused to obey Napoleon's Continental System.
Napoleon sought revenge by invading Moscow.
He gathered 500,000 troops for the invasion of Moscow.
To Napoleon's surprise, Russia implemented a scorched-earth policy, in which they destroyed all resources that could aid Napoleon's army.
This policy included weapons, food, and shelters.
Napoleon and his troops invaded Russia during the winter months, resulting in harsh battle conditions.
At the end of this invasion, tens of thousands of soldiers died of starvation, exposure, and disease. 40,000 soldiers returned to France alive, but only 10,000 remained in the military. Great Britain The Battle of Trafalgar and Continental System This political cartoon portrays Napoleon as a tyrant.
In this cartoon, Napoleon is wrapped in a blanket being held by the artist's interpretation of the devil.
The artist depicts Napoleon as the child of the devil.
The devil is known as an evil character, implying that Napoleon is evil.
Because tyrants are known to be of evil nature, it can be assumed the artist believed Napoleon was a tyrant.
The artist drew the devil with a beast-like appearance.
The artist was representing Napoleon as a beast in his position as emperor. Great Britain was the only European country that wasn't under the control of Napoleon.
The British Navy destroyed Napoleon's navy in the Battle of Trafalgar, the only major battle that Napoleon was defeated in.
Because he was defeated by Great Britain, Napoleon established a Continental System.
This system created a blockade that prohibited trade with Great Britain. Napoleon had all countries under his control cut off trade and communication with Great Britain after the defeat. Seeking revenge, Napoleon hoped the blockade would cause Great Britain's economy to collapse. The blockade resulted in an increase in smuggling in Napoleon's territories because his empire needed Great Britain's goods.
His Continental System also forbade all commerce with the British Isles. Napoleon would monitor the postal system and refused to send out letters that were written in English, written to an Englishman, or were directed to Great Britain.
His policy also arrested those who were English and living in his empire, and made them into prisoners of war.
The Continental System was not as successful as Napoleon had anticipated. Instead, the Continental System crippled all European countries. Britain was affected, but not as severely as the other nations.
Because of these negative effects, Pope Pius VII and Russia refused to abide by Napoleon's Continental System. After the War of Liberation in 1813, Napoleon was defeated, and exiled to Elba.
Napoleon later escaped, and launched the Hundred Day campaign in 1815 to win back his control.
Napoleon continued his efforts to defeat the Allied Powers (Britain, Austria, Russia, Prussia, Sweden, and Portugal) emphasizing his desire for more power. Napoleon's Reign Coming to an End Napoleon's Final Days Napoleon was defeated in the Battle of Waterloo, and was exiled to St. Helena.
Here, he spent the rest of his life, and eventually died in 1821 of stomach cancer. The Concordat of 1801
Napoleon and Pope Pius VII signed the Concordat on July 15, 1801.
The Concordat reestablished the Roman Catholic Church in France after the French Revolution.
Many ties between the Pope and France were renewed in the Concordat.
One of Napoleon's goals in signing the Concordat was to gain Catholic supporters. He was successful and as a result controlled France in a religious sense as well as political.
The Concordat also protected religious freedom, making Napoleon popular to all religions. This painting depicts
Napoleon's relationship with his wife, Joséphine. Pope Pius VII Lycée Lakanal
in Sceaux, France This graph depicts the number of soldiers Napoleon had at each point in the Russian Campaign and the temperatures they endured. A map of the areas that could not trade with Great Britain. by Sam Applebaum and Nicki Jariwala Please enjoy the following video about Napoleon's life as a tyrant: Spain Peninsular War Napoleon desired to replace the Bourbon Dynasty of Spain with his brother, Joseph Bonaparte.
The Spanish people didn't want their country under the control of any person associated with Napoleon.
They joined forces with Britain and fought Napoleon in the Peninsular War.
Spain defeated Napoleon, resulting in 250,000 deaths of soldiers in Napoleon's army.
Another result of the war was the taxation of Napoleon's reserves.
Ferdinand VII of Spain resumed his throne in 1814.
A hatred towards France and Napoleon developed in Spain. Works Cited "Peninsular War." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 03 Mar. 2013. Web. 03 Mar. 2013. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peninsular_War>.
"Russian Campaign of 1812." Modern European History Wiki -. N.p., n.d. Web. 03 Mar. 2013. <https://moderneurope.wikispaces.com/Russian Campaign of 1812>.
"Napoleonic Propaganda." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 02 Dec. 2013. Web. 03 Mar. 2013. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napoleonic_propaganda>.
"Pope Pius VII." Cultural Catholic -. Cultural Catholic, n.d. Web. 03 Mar. 2013. <http://www.culturalcatholic.com/pope_pius_vii.htm>.
"Lycée Lakanal." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 02 Feb. 2013. Web. 03 Mar. 2013. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lyc%C3%A9e_Lakanal>. "Civil Code." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 22 Feb. 2013. Web. 03 Mar. 2013. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Civil_code>.
"Continental System, 1806-1810." Continental System, 1806-1810. N.p., n.d. Web. 03 Mar. 2013. <http://astro.temple.edu/~barbday/Europe66/resources/ContinentalSystem.htm>.
"SIMPLY - CHATEAU: Napoleon to Jospehine............" Napoleon to Jospehine. N.p., n.d. Web. 03 Mar. 2013. <http://simply-chateau.blogspot.com/2013/02/napoleon-to-jospehine.html>.
"This Is My Dear Son": Napoleon as Child of the Devil." "This Is My Dear Son": Napoleon as Child of the Devil. Liberty, Equality, Fraternity, n.d. Web. 03 Mar. 2013. <http://chnm.gmu.edu/revolution/d/162/>.
1802- Napoleon's Diary Entry, Document 2 Thank you for watching!