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NASA Seminar

AP US2 Seminar - 11-28-12
by

Mike O'Brien

on 19 March 2013

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Transcript of NASA Seminar

Introduction NASA: Triumphs, Disasters, and the Future by Mike O'Brien Thesis "Space Race" time period
Sputnik's launch - 1957
sparked the need for more research / increased competition Origins Woodrow Wilson - started the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (1915)
supervised and directed scientific study of the problems of flight, with a view of their practical solutions
Charles D. Walcott:
secretary of Smithsonian Institute
federal gov't should create office for improved aviation to catch up to Europe
NACA replaced by NASA (employees and faculty) in 1958 Origins Rise of the
Administration Dwight D. Eisenhower:president during Sputnik's launch
encouraged new program more highly dedicated to space
established NASA in 1958 - National Aeronautics and Space Act
T. Keith Glennan was sworn in as the first administrator of NASA on Aug. 19 1961-1964, NASA's budget increased 500%
all military working on satellites (Navy, Army, Air Force)
NASA = combination of military satellite programs & NACA Mercury Program 1959-1963
wanted man to orbit earth
first man in space was Yuri Gagarin (USSR)
Alan Shepherd - May 5, 1961
John Glenn - February 20, 1962
US lost competition by a month
program lost significance, ended in 1963 Mercury Program
Spacecrafts 1962-1966
follow up of Mercury Program
set stage for future landing programs
Experimented:
longer duration travels
vehicular improvements
reentry to earth Project Gemini Project Gemini Spacecraft John F Kennedy 1961-1963
more focused on space advances than Eisenhower
JFK made racing and competing with USSR "centerpiece" of US Space Program
"We Choose to Go to the Moon" speech Apollo Program designed and dedicated to lunar landing
series of failed missions (manned & unmanned)
Apollo 1 cabin fire @ launch
3 deaths
suspended further missions for almost a year
Apollo 11 - first manned mission to land successfully on moon
Neil Armstrong Buzz Aldrin, and Michael Collins Apollo 11 Apollo 13 liquid oxygen tank exploded
trip was a failure
forced to return to earth via lunar module Apollo 13 Skylab 1973-1979
space station set out to orbit earth
unmanned launch
performed space research/analysis Skylab Lasting Impacts Educational Reform:
National Defense Education Act of 1958
student loan program for universities
wide array of programs to enhance public understanding of science and technology
Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965
signed by Lyndon B Johnson
balanced rise of STEM education Originating from a small committee, NASA has grown rapidly over the last century, and has had a tremendous domestic impact on education, the hearts of the public and an international affect on the United States' image. Origins American Ballistics Missile Agency
restarted "Explorer Program"
retaliation for Sputnik
combined with "Jet Propulsion Laboratory to launch "Explorer 1"
Project Vanguard
Naval Research Laboratory
launch of satellite with use of "Vanguard Rocket"
1958- Vanguard 1 launched - currently oldest artificial satellite still orbiting the United States Mars Programs Mariner Program
first missions to Mars starting in 1964
Voyager Program
1966-1968 plans to land on Mars
Viking Program
2 spacecrafts to orbit, land, and survey
spacecrafts were called Viking 1 & Viking 2
Mars Odyssey
designed to look for water or volcanic activity
found water reserves beneath the surface
Rovers
Pathfinder (1997)
Curiosity (2011) Mars Missions Space Shuttle Programs 1983-2011
revolutionary program
larger crews
flight control- better navigation
brought first woman into space, Sally Ride (1983)
Columbia (1981-2003)
first space shuttle mission
27 successful missions
destroyed in 2003 after disintegration during landing
death of entire flight crew (7 deaths)
Challenger (1986)
explosion 73 seconds after launch (7 deaths)
http://www.history.com/topics/challenger-disaster/videos#engineering-disasters---challenger Reaction to Shuttle Disasters Challenger:
mood towards NASA changed from excitement to fear
sending ordinary people to space
wake up call for the dangers of space travel
1st death since Apollo 1
NASA suspended actions for 2 years
Columbia
less of a reaction
people were conditioned to the riskiness of NASA
NASA suspended for more than 2 years International Space Station (ISS) joint space station project
largest orbiting artificial body in space
launched in 1998
has been continuously occupied since, will be until 2020
joint project:
NASA, Russian Federal Space Agency (RSA), Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), European Space Agency (ESA), & Canadian Space Agency (CSA) Lasting Impact "spin-off" technologies:
everyday technologies resulting from NASA funding and research
ex: memory foam, freeze-dried foods, solar energy, portable vacuums, firefighting equipment (lightweight breathing system) Discussion Questions How did NASA's accomplishments affect the United States' international image?

Did NASA handle their disasters and mistakes properly?

What President seemed to have the largest impact on the growth of the Administration? Current Administration Obama Administration
increase funding by $6 billion
asteroid mission (2025) and Mars missions (mid-2030's)
$40 million effort to help Space Coast workers affected by the cancellation of the Space Shuttle program
NASA Authorization Act of 2010 - supports an overall growth in science, aeronautics, and space technology Hubble Space Telescope large telescope that orbits the earth
high resolution images of galaxies
funded through the 1970's
supposed to be launched in 1983
budget delays, and destruction of Challenger
Full transcript