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The Five Types of Claims (6)

Wood, N. V. (2009). Essentials of Argument (2nd ed., pp. 130-137). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson, Prentice Hall.
by

Jane Davis

on 21 October 2013

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Transcript of The Five Types of Claims (6)

5 Types of Claims
Claims of Definition:
An entire argument can center around the definition of one term. For example, what is a human "right"? Who decides how it will be defined? Will the definition in Pakistan be different than it is in the United States? How something is defined can have a huge bearing on how an issue is handled. Witness the controversy over defining the beginning of life in the abortion controversy.
Claims of Fact
When you tell a police officer that the other car moved into your lane, or that it wasn't your dog barking all night, you are making a claim of fact.
Certain as you may be, the subject may still
be controversial enough to require proof.
Claims of Value:
If you are claiming that something is better or worse in relation to something else, you are making a claim of value. For example,
Video games are a waste of time,
sports are the best way to build
character, and savings
accounts are the
worst way to
accumulate wealth,
are all values
claims.
Claims of Policy:
This type of claim describes a problem and suggests an
organizational
way to solve it. How should governments, school districts, hospitals, etc., respond to the myriad issues that face our society? Examples
include arguing against drug
testing for welfare recipients,
mandating vaccinations for
children attending public
school, and changing
election policies are
official ways that
organizations such as
government, schools, or
churches will act.
Claims of Cause and Effect:
People often disagree
about what causes
something, or what the
effects of a particular
circumstance might be. Some
examples of this type of argument
might be that obesity does not necessarily shorten lifespan, that Global Warming is not
caused by greenhouse gasses, or that children who attend daycare experience more health problems. When choosing this type of argument, write about either the causes or the effects.
What caused it? What are its effects?
What should we do
about it? What
should be our future
course of action?
Is it good or bad?
What should be
our criteria in
deciding?
Did it happen?
Does it exist?
What is it?
How should we define it?
Full transcript