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Classification

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by

Amal Adem

on 11 September 2014

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Transcript of Classification


Cell Type: Prokaryotic

Number of Cells: Unicellular

Mode of Nutrition: Autotroph or Heterotroph
Kingdom Archaebacteria
Kingdoms of Life
Metabolism: Methanogens receive their energy with the use of Hydrogen gas. The hydrogen gas serves to decrease the carbon dioxide in order to produce methane gas Methanogens digest their food by the process of endocytosis, and the nutrients are absorbed into the cell through the membrane

Gets rid of waste: Methanogens excrete waste through the process of diffusion. The waste is released through the cell membrane as either a liquid or a gas.

Reproduction: Methanogens reproduce asexually by detaching themselves from the main parent. The hydrogen bonds surrounded by the bacterial bases break and create the new offspring.

Growth and Development: Methanogens only need to rely on hydrogen gas and carbon dioxide as a source of food to grow and develop healthily.
Phylum Methanogen
Metabolism: Halophiles obtain their energy by producing their own food. They use the chlorohyll bacteriorhodosin to absorb the energy from light.

Gets rid of waste: Halophiles remove waste through the process of exocytosis. The waste is excreted from the cell through the use of vesicles, which become a part of the cell membrane as the waste exits the cell.

Reproduction: They reproduce through the process of binary fission, in which the cell grows to a specific size and then splits into the daughter cells.

Growth and Development: Halophiles grow by converting light into ATP through a certain process.
Phylum Halophile
Examples of Halophiles
Cell Type: Prokaryotic

Number of Cells: Unicellular

Mode of Nutrition: Autotroph or Heterotroph
Kingdom Eubacteria
Metabolism: Cyanobacteria convert light source into chemical energy throughthe process of photosynthesis. They receive their nutrients from the energy from the sun and water from which they live in.

Gets rid of waste: Cyanobacteria excrete their waste by diffusion through the cells.

Reproduction: Cyanobacteria are able to reproduce through many processes including budding, binary fission, and fragmentation.

Growth and Development: Cyanobacteria grow and develop by living in groups in water.
Phylum Cyanobacteria
Examples of Methanogens
Methanogenium frigidum



Methanopyrus kandleri



Methanosarcina acetivorans
Examples of Cyanobacteria
Lyngbya confervoides



Trichodemium erythraeum



Microcystis bloom
Phylum Spirochete
Metabolism: Spirochetes get their food source without the use of oxygen. They obtain their energy through anaerobic respiration and more specifically, fermentation.

Get rid of waste: Like Cyanobacteria, Spirochete excrete their waste by diffusison through the cells.

Reproduction: Spirochetes reproduce asexually, specifically through binary fission.

Growth and Development: As they grow and develop, Spirochetes grow their flagellas sidewaysand utilize it to move around in a twisting action.
Examples of Spirochetes
Kingdom Protista
Cell Type: Eukaryotic

Number of Cells: Most unicellular; some multicellular

Mode of Nutrition: Autotroph or Heterotroph
Phylum Ciliophora
Metabolism: Ciliophoras are fused to sheets that help them to efficiently sweep up food. They use lysosomes to digest food.

Get rid of waste: Food is excreted through the process of exocytosis.

Reproduction: Ciliophoras can reproduce sexually and asexually. They reproduce sexually through the process of conjugation. They reproduce asexually though the process of fission.

Growth and Development: As they develop, Ciliophoras grow a flagella and use them as arms to swim.
Examples of Ciliophoras
Anophryoides haemophila



Paramecium caudatum



Vorticella marina
Phylum Sporozoa
Metabolism: Because they are parasites, Sporozoa absorb the nutrients and molecules they need from the host.

Get rid of waste: They excrete their waste by diffusion through the cells.

Reproduction: Sporozoas can reproduce either sexually or asexually through their spores.

Growth and Development: Sporozoas continue to grow inside their hosts' body, constantly absorbing the nutrients necessary to help the parasite develop.
Examples of Sporozoas
Kingdom Fungi
Cell Type: Eukaryotic

Number of Cells: Some unicellular; most multicellular

Mode of Nutrition: Heterotroph

Phylum Chytidiomycota
Metabolism: Chytidiomycotas can either feed off of living organisms or break down nutrients from dead organisms, known as decomposition.

Get rid of waste: They are able to release waste by diffusion through the cells.

Reproduction: They can either reproduce sexually, through fusion, and asexually.

Growth and Development: Chytidiomycotas live and grow in freshwater and need water in order to develop.
Examples of Chytidiomycota
Phylum Zygomycota
Metabolism: Zygomycotas feed off of dead and decaying organisms, plants and animals. They digest their food through absorbtion.

Gets rid of waste: Similarly to chytidiomycota, Zygomycotas release their waste through diffusion.

Reproduction: They are able to reproduce both sexually and asexually though spores.

Growth and Development: They are able to grow and develop in many differnt things such as soil and decaying plant and animal material.
Examples of Zygomycotas
Mycotypha africana



Mucor Mucedo



Rhizopus mycelium
Kingdom Plantae
Cell Type: Eukaryotic

Number of Cells: Multicellular

Mode of Nutrition: Autotroph

Kingdom Animalia
Phylum Bryophyta
Metabolism: Mosses use their roots to absorb nutrients up through the stem. They make its food through the process of photosynthesis.

Gets rid of waste: Mosses excrete hydrogen ions into water, causing the solution to become acidic. They excrete the waste directly by releasing oxygen.

Reproduction: Mosses can either reproduce asexully, also known vegetative reproduction, or sexually.

Growth and Development: Although Mosses normally develop on moist soil, they can also grow on hard surfaces such as tree bark and rocks.
Examples of Bryophyta
Tortula princeps



Goniomitrium acuminatum



Trichostomum brachydontium
Phylum Hepaticophyta
Metabolism: Liverworts absorb the moisture and nutrients needed for their well-being. They make their food by forgoing photosyntheis.

Gets rid of waste: They excrete waste by releasing glucose and oxygen.

Reproduction: Liverworts have two forms of reproduction such as asexual reproduction, vegetative reproduction, and sexual reproduction.

Growth and Development: Liverworts grow on damp soil and are often seen developing on trees.
Examples of Hepaticophyta
Marchantiophyta



Jungermanniopsida



Haplomitrium
Phylum Anthcerophyta
Cell Type: Eukaryotic

Number of Cells: Multicellular

Mode of Nutrition: Heterotroph

Metabolism: Hornworts forgo photosynthesis to absorb nutrients from the sun's energy.

Gets rid of waste: Hornworts get rid of their waste by releasing oxygen and sugar into the atmosphere.

Reproduction: The two ways of reproduction are asexual an sexual reproduction.

Growth and Development: Hornworts need to grow in a moiturized environment in order to utilize their main functions.
Examples of Anthcerophyta
Anthocerotaceae



Phaeoceros laevis



Leiosporocerotaceae
Phylum Lycophyta
Metabolism: Club mosses absorb their nutrients from water and other sources. They make their food with the use of the chlorophyll to forgo photosynthesis.

Gets rid of waste: Glucose and oxygen is released into the atmosphere after the process of photosynthesis.

Reproduction: Club mosses reproduce by releasing their spores. They do not produce any seeds.

Growth and Development: They need to grow in a moist environment, since they produce spores.
Examples of Lycophyta
Lycopodiaceae



Selaginellaceae



Isoetaceae
Phylum Pterphyta
Metabolism: Similar to the other plants in other phylums, ferns obtain their energy from the sun through the process of photosynthesis.

Gets rid of waste: The products of photosynthesis, glucose and oxygen, are the wastes of ferns and are excreted by getting released into the atmosphere.

Reproduction: Ferns do not make seeds, so they reproduce through spores.

Growth and Development: Although ferns usually grow in moist surroundings, they can also grow on harder surfaces.
Examples of Pterophyta
Phylum Porifera
Metabolism: Sponges get their energy from their pores, ostia, and canals, tubelike chambers, in which water passes through, and oxygen and nutrients are collected. This is done through two types of collar cells called choanocytes and amoebocyte.

Gets rid of waste: Sponges excrete through the osculum by the water current made by the choanocytes.

Reproduction: Most sea sponges are both men and women, hermaphrodites, though they're only one gender at a time, so they contain both eggs and sperm. Therefore, they reproduce sexually but also have the ability to reproduce asexually.

Growth and Development: Sponges are versatile and can grow in many different environments, saltwater or freshwataer, in varying depths. As they developo, sponges have to regulate the volume of water by restricting their pores. They also have the ability to regenerate.
Rhizopus stolonifer



Olpidium brassicae



Allomyces macrogynus
Plasmodium vivax



Entamoeba histolytica



Entamoeba gingivalis
Treponema pertenue



Borrelia burgdorferi



Treponema pallidum
Halobacterium salinarum



Haloarcula marismortui



Haloquadratum walsbyi
Phylum Porifera
Symmetry: Assymetrical
Tissue Layers: None
Digestive Track: Incomplete
Protostome or Deuterostome: Neither
Coelum: Absent
Circulation: Pores and collar cells
Gas Exchange: Direct diffusion - through surface of cell then to individual cells
Examples of Porifera
Chondrilla nucula



Cinachyra kuekenthali



Callyspongia vaginalis
Phylum Cnidaria
Metabolism: Cnidarians gets its energy mostly by using its stingers and stinging cells. The organism injects its stingers in its prey, paralyzing and utilizing its tentacles to bring the prey into its mouth.

Gets rid of waste: Cnidarians excrete through the process of diffusion. The waste flows out of the gastrovascular cavity.

Reproduction: They can reproduce both sexually and asexuallly. For asexual reproduction, small parts of the organism break off and are used to create a new polyp. For sexual reproduction, they release sperm and eggs.

Growth and Development: Cnidarians grow and develop in moist surroundings, such as aquatic environment.
Phylum Cnidaria
Symmetry: Radial
Tissue Layers: Two
Digestive Track: Incomplete
Protostome or Deuterostome: Neither
Coelom: Present
Circulation: Water's oxygen is switched for carbon dioxide
Gas Exchange: Occurs through the process of diffusion from the internal to external surface
Examples of Cnidaria
Condylactis gigantea



Lebrunia coralligens



Lebrunia danae
Phylum Platyhelminthes
Metabolism: Platyhelminthes obtain their energy by fixing itself in the digestive track of an organism and absorbing the food once the host has fully digested it. The worm eventually eats off the host and the food consumed.

Gets rid of waste: These flatworms get rid of their waste through the opening in which they digest the food.

Reproduction: Flatworms reproduce by splitting into two seperate pieces (asexually). The two pieces form into one complete worm.

Growth and Development: Flatworms grow and develop in another organisms intestines, host. They also have the ability to regenerate.
Phylum Platyhelminthes
Symmetry: Bilateral
Tissue Layers: Three
Digestive Track: Incomplete
Protostome or Deuterstome: Protostome
Coelom: Present
Circulation: Contains a gastrovascular cavity with one opening
Gas Exchange: Use diffusion in bring oxygen into body
Examples of Platyhelminthes
Mesostoma



Microstomum caudatum



Pseudoceros dimidiatus
Phylum Nematoda
Metabolism: Nematodes feed of the blood, tissue, and cells of their host. They attach themselves to the intestines and abosrb their needed nutrients. The pharynx, part of the alimentary canal behind the mouth, helps them do this by pumping up the food to their digestive sac.

Gets rid of waste: The waste exits the body through gland cells and tubes, collecting all the waste in the psuedocoelom. They excrete inside of their host, causing further infection.

Reproduction: Roundworms reproduce sexually. Eggs are placed inside the host's body.

Growth and Development: Because they are parasites, these organisms grow in the body of other organisms.
Phylum Nematoda
Symmetry: Bilateral
Tissue Layer: Three
Digestive Track: Complete
Coelom: Absent
Protostome or Deuterstome: Protostome
Circulation: None
Gas Exchange: Exhange through the surface of their skins
Examples of Nematoda
Toxascaris leonina



Caenorhabditis elegans



Haemonchus contortus
Phylum Annelida
Metabolism: Segmented worms get their energy from feeding off of dead and decaying organisms and dirt/mold.

Gets rid of waste: These worms excrete their waste using tubes. Once it exits the tubes and leaves the organism, the waste layers on top of the soil, enriching it with many nutrients to thrive and grow.

Reproduction: Segmented worms reproduce sexually. The eggs form on top of the worm's head and falls when it is ready to hatch.

Growth and Development: They can either grow and develop on soil or freshwater.
Phylum Annelida
Symmetry: Bilateral
Tissue Layers: Three
Digestive Track: Complete
Protostome or Deuterstome: Protostome
Coelom: Present
Circulation: Closed system
Gas Exchange: Diffusion
Examples of Annelida
Lumbricus terrestris


Arenicola marina



Nereis limbata
Phylum Mollusca
Examples of Mollusca
Chaetopleura apiculata



Crepidula fornicata



Octopus vulgaris
Metabolism: These organisms are filter feeders that use their gills to seperate organic particles of food for them to eat from the water. Enzymes and the stomach help break down and digest the food, and food that is not digestable is excreted through the anus.

Gets rid of waste: Solid wastes are excreted through the anus, and other wastes are excreted through the nephridia, organs that function similarly to kidneys.

Reproduction: Bivalves release their eggs and sperms into the sea and develops once fertilized.

Growth and Development: Bivalves can maneuver quickly by flapping thier shells.
Phylum Mollusca
Symmetry: Bilateral
Tissue Layers: Three
Digestive Track: Complete
Protostome or Deuterstome: Protostome
Coelom: Present
Circulation: Open circulatory system - heart pumps blood
Gas Exchange: Oxygen and other nutrients are carried by blood to different parts of the organism
Phylum Arthropoda
Metabolism: Athropods contain appendages surrounding their mouth in which they use to grab food and eat.

Gets rid of waste: Waste is excreted through pores by pressure created by body movements.

Reproduction: These organisms reproduce sexually, placing eggs on top of wood. The larvae then places itself inside of a host and feeds of the fluids.

Growth and Development: Arthropods shed their exoskelton and augment their bodies before their new exoskeleton solidifies.
Phylum Arthropoda
Symmetry: Bilateral
Tissue Layers: Three
Digestive Track: Complete
Protosome or Deuterostome: Protostome
Coelom: Present
Circulation: Open circulatory system - heart pumps blood throughout the body
Gas Exchange: Diffusion or network of tubes to carry gases throughout the body
Examples of Arthropoda
Libinia dubia



Palaemon floridana



Menippe mercenaria
Phylum Echinodermata
Metabolism: Echinoderms obtain their food by utilising their tube feet. They eat off of organisms such as sponges, algae, mollusks, and many more.

Gets rid of waste: Depending on the species, Echinoderms can excrete through their anus or tube feet.

Reproduction: Sexual reproduction is common in most echinoderms, fertilization of eggs, however, various species reproduce asexually. Asexual reproduction is fission of body parts for regeneration.

Growth and Development: Because they have an open circulatory system, echinoderms grow and develop by circulating and use gills to breathe.
Phylum Echinodermata
Symmetry: Radial
Tissue Layer: Three
Digestive Track: Complete
Protostome or Deuterostome: Deuterostome
Coelom: Present
Circulation: Open circulatory system
Gas Exchange: Exchange carbon with water through their vascular system
Examples of Echinoderms
Astropecten articulatus



Echinaster spinulosus



Arbacia puctulata
Phylum Chordata
Metabolism: Chordates feed off plants and animals by using their mouth. They digest their food with their stomach and intestines/organs inside.

Gets rid of waste: They excrete waste through kidneys and intestines.

Reproduction: They reproduce sexually with endorine glands.

Growth and Development: Chordates can be any color in nature and contain a hallow dorsal nerve tube to help with growth and development.
Phylum Chordata
Symmetry: Bilateral
Tissue Layers: Three
Digestive Track: Complete
Protostome or Deuterostome: Deuterostome
Coelom: Present
Circulation: closed circulatory system
Gas Exchange: Exchanges carbon with oxygen through the lungs or gills
Examples of Chordata
Dasyatis sabina



Paralichthys albigutta



Hippocampus erectus
Cycas revoluta



Cycas taiwaniana



Zamia floridana
Phylum Cycadophyta
Examples of Cycadophyta
Asplenium platyneuron



Athyrium pycnocarpon



Athyrium thelypteroides
Metabolism: Cycads forgo photosynthesis to obtain energy, absorbing sunlight and nutrients to help them thrive.

Gets rid of waste: They release oxygen into the air as a product of photosynthesis.

Reproduction: Cycads can either reproduce asexually or sexually.

Growth and Development: These plants thrive in hot, moist environments.
Phylum Ginkgophyta
Metabolism: Ginkgoes obtain their energy through photosynthesis, producing its needed nutrients.

Gets rid of waste: Oxygen is released during the process of photosynthesis.

Reproduction: They reproduce sexually. The female must first produce seeds and a few months later pollun is produced as a means of fertilization.

Growth and Development: Ginkgoes thrive in moist and dry environments, since it is immune to droughts. It is also immune to pollutants and various bacteria.
Examples of Ginkgophyta
Ginkgo biloba



Ginkgo adiantoides



Penicillium chrysogenum
Phylum Coniferophyta
Phylum Anthophyta
Metabolism: They receive their nutrients through the process of photosynthesis.

Gets rid of waste: Oxygen is released into the atmosphere during photosynthesis.

Reproduction: They can reproduce both asexually, vegetative, or sexually, fertilized seeds.

Growth and Development: They grow through seed growth and get stronger roots as the leaves start to develop.
Examples of Anthophyta
Examples of Coniferophyta
Metabolism: Conifers obtain their energy through the process of photosynthesis, receiving sunlight and water.

Gets rid of waste: Oxygen is released into the atmosphere as a product of photosynthesis.

Reproduction: They reproduce sexually by placing seeds inside a cone and fertilizing it with pollun.

Growth and Development: They must grow and develop in generally warm and moist areas.
Tsuga candensis



Picea rubens



Metasequoia glyptostroboides
Eucalyptus regnans



Dionaea muscipula



Adansonia digitato
By: Amal Adem
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