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05.06 The Enlightenment and Revolutions: It Was the Best of Times, It Was the Worst of Times.
Transcript of 05.06 The Enlightenment and Revolutions: It Was the Best of Times, It Was the Worst of Times.
By Katya Worden
Ancien Régime, or Old Regime
France was divided into the Ancien Regime, the King was at the top, the nobles was next, and then the citizens were at the bottom.
The American Revolution served as an example to the oppressed French people that revolution was possible. The American revolutionaries' founding documents, awoke in the French a hopeful yearning for freedom. French revolutionaries borrowed heavily from the U.S. Declaration of Independence and the U.S. Constitution when crafting their own declaration and design of freedom.
The Age of Enlightenment purpose was to reform society using reason, to challenge ideas grounded in tradition and faith, and to advance knowledge through the scientific method. It promoted scientific thought, skepticism, and intellectual interchange. It opposed superstition and intolerance, with the Catholic Church as a favorite target. the ideas of the Enlightenment have had a long-term major impact on the culture, politics, and governments of the Western world.
The reign of Terror
The Reign of Terror, or The Terror, was a period of violence that occurred after the onset of the French Revolution, incited by conflict between rival political factions, the Girondins and the Jacobins, and marked by mass executions of "enemies of the revolution". The death toll ranged into the tens of thousands, with over 16 thousands executed by guillotine, and another twenty five thousands in summary executions across France.
On July 14, 1789, an angry Parisian mob stormed the Bastille, a fortress prison, and freed a handful of prisoners. Though this event had little tangible benefit, it was a powerful symbol of the French power to free themselves from the power of the hated king. The
French wanted to show that they could show defiance against the hated king, and so they tore the prison brick by brick and used the bricks to build a bridge.
War agianst Russia
Napoleon decided to act against Russia. By June of 1812, he gathered an enormous army of 600,000 men and marched into Russia. Despite the heavy losses, the French managed to take out an important victory at the Battle of Borodino in September, 1812.
Battle of Waterloo
This battle lasted all day and into the nigh on June 18, 1815 with the Duke of Wellington's forces. By its end, Napoleon and his army were thoroughly defeated. On June 22, Napoleon surrendered to the British.
Congress of Vienna
A meeting of European nations re-establishing each country’s national sovereignty after Napoleon’s defeat. They were able to convened to ensure the sovereignty of the nations Napoleon had conquered during his rule.