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Chapter 8: The Federalist Era
Transcript of Chapter 8: The Federalist Era
What were the precedents that Washington established as the first president of the United States?
What challenges did the United States face during Washington's administration?
How did the Federalists and Republican Parties form, and on what issues did they disagree?
The Federalist Era
President John Adams
The First President
Departments (Cabinets) in Exec.
Set up Court System
Add Bill of Rights
The First Political Parties
Executive Departments - Called Cabinet
State Department - Relations with other nations
Treasury - Financial Matters
Department of War - National Defense
Set Precedent that he could appoint and fire department secretaries
Courts: Judiciary Act of 1789
Set up Court System
State or Federal Courts
Both State and Federal
Federal Supreme (overide state)
John Jay first Chief Justice of Supreme Court
Bill of Rights
Purpose to protect rights of individuals
Tenth amendment makes states Powerful
Powers not given to National Gov. belong to States
The New Country's Economy
Handle Nations Debt
Pay all old debts including state debts
Bonds - Gov. promise to pay back money borrowed with interest
Less bonds in South more $ going to North States
South accept Capitol put in South
Fight for National Bank
Hamilton wanted national Bank
Private and Gov. owned
Madison and Jefferson - No Bank
Said it favored Wealthy
Not Constitutional (Strict Interpretation)
Hamilton and Washington Respond
Agreed not in Constitution
Elastic Clause"Necessary and Proper" so O.K.
Tariffs and Taxes
Tax on Imports
People buy American Goods
South little industry opposed
Just made stuff expensive
The First President
Tax on Whiskey
Expensive to ship Grain to coast
Turning it to Whiskey more Profitable
Tax = Less Buying = Less $ for Farmers
Farmers attacked Tax Collectors
Washington sent troops to squash
people have representation
Don't like tax get diff. Reps
Problems with Europe
France and Britain Clash
Washington wants NEUTRALITY (not taking sides)
No British or French ships allowed here
Britain IMPRESSED (Forced U.S. sailors into British Navy) to stop us from trading with France
Wash sent John Jay (Chief Justice of Supreme Court)
Jays Treaty made peace but trade still threatened
The Proclamation of Neutrality 1793
Whereas it appears that a state of war exists between Austria, Prussia, Sardinia, Great Britain, and the United Netherlands, of the one part, and France on the other; and the duty and interest of the United States require, that they should with sincerity and good faith adopt and pursue a conduct friendly and impartial toward the belligerant Powers;
I have therefore thought fit by these presents to declare the disposition of the United States to observe the conduct aforesaid towards those Powers respectfully; and to exhort and warn the citizens of the United States carefully to avoid all acts and proceedings whatsoever, which may in any manner tend to contravene such disposition.
And I do hereby also make known, that whatsoever of the citizens of the United States shall render himself liable to punishment or forfeiture under the law of nations, by committing, aiding, or abetting hostilities against any of the said Powers, or by carrying to any of them those articles which are deemed contraband by the modern usage of nations, will not receive the protection of the United States, against such punishment or forfeiture; and further, that I have given instructions to those officers, to whom it belongs, to cause prosecutions to be instituted against all persons, who shall, within the cognizance of the courts of the United States, violate the law of nations, with respect to the Powers at war, or any of them.
In testimony whereof, I have caused the seal of the United States of America to be affixed to these presents, and signed the same with my hand. Done at the city of Philadelphia, the twenty-second day of April, one thousand seven hundred and ninety-three, and of the Independence of the United States of America the seventeenth.
April 22, 1793
A group of people who share simmiliar ideas, values and beliefs about how government should operate
and Shipping Interests
especially in the North
Limit the Government
Favored small farmers
and urban workers especially in the South
Views of the Constitution
"You can do something even
though it is not in the Constitution"
FEDERAL BANK O.K.
"You can only do what the Constitution
says you can do."
The Peoples Role
(PEOPLE DIRECTLY RULE)
ALWAYS BE IN
THE HANDS OF HONEST EDUCATED MEN WITH
"The people are turbulent and changing
they seldome judge or determine right."
ALWAYS BE IN THE HANDS OF THE
"I am not among those who fear the
People. They, and not the rich, are
our dependence (what we depend on)
not our freedom."
Election of 1879
Federalists John Adams
Republican Thomas Jefferson
Adams most Electoral Votes
Jefferson 2nd most
John Adams - Federalist - President
Thomas Jefferson - Republican - Vice President
France thought Jay's Treaty helped Britain
France started seizing our ships
Adams tried to resolve (Bring to an end)
3 French Diplomats Bribed America - Give us $ and we will stop
Adams urged for War
Alien and Sedition Acts
Aliens - Immigrants in America
America was suspicious of them
Sedition - Things done to weaken the gov
Aliens imprisoned or sent out of country
Violated peoples right to speak out against the gov.
Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
Jefferson and Madison claimed (Alien and Sedition Acts) violated Constitution
States could NULLIFY- legally overturn federal laws that are unconstitutional
Supported States Rights
States have all power not forbidden from them
Adams backs down from
War with France
Federalists demanded war after Jefferson and Madison Resolutions
Adams turned on his own party
He thought War hurt America
Republican Party Split
Hamilton Supporters and Adams Supporters