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Saturated Fats in Oils (Science Fair 2013/2014)

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Hillary MacInnis

on 2 April 2014

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Transcript of Saturated Fats in Oils (Science Fair 2013/2014)

Variables
Hypothesis
Peanut oil has the highest proportion of saturated fat, and when the iodine test is performed, will require the longest time to lose its purple color.
Purpose
Conclusion
1. Clean the 5 test tubes were and arrange them in the test tube rack. Label them according to the oils used for testing - peanut oil, canola oil, corn oil, soya bean oil and olive oil.
2. Measure 20ml of each type of oil with the measuring cylinder, and pour into the respective test tubes.
3. Drip 3 drops of iodine into the first test tube. Start the stopwatch immediately and record the time taken for the purple color of the iodine to disappear, as shown below.
4. Repeat Step 3 on the 4 types of oil, and record the results in a table.

Independent: Type of oil used for testing
Dependent: Time taken for the iodine to clear
Controlled:
1) Amount of oil used for testing
2) Number of drops of iodine

Materials
1 bottle of peanut oil
1 bottle of Canola oil
1 bottle of Extra-Virgin olive oil
1 bottle of vegetable oil
1 bottle of corn oil
PROCEDURES
Saturated Fats in Cooking Oils
References
By Hillary MacInnis
Thank You!
This science fair project was conducted to measure the levels of saturated fat in different types of cooking oil.
Iodine
Test tubes or something to hold the oils
Stop watch
Saturated Fat Level in Different Oils and The Time took for The Iodine to Dissolve
Peanut Oil
18% Saturated Fat
Canola Oil
7% Saturated Fat
Extra Virgin Olive Oil
14% Saturated Fat
Corn Oil
14% Saturated Fat
Vegetable Oil
8% Saturated Fat
1 eye dropper
Measuring cylinder
Best cooking oil, healthy cooking oils and olive oil - http://www.fatfreekitchen.com/cholesterol/cookingoil.html

How to reduce your cholesterol level - http://www.ehow.com/how_2280843_reduce-cholestrol-level.html

The hypothesis that peanut oil will have the highest proportion of saturated fat, and will take the longest time to become revert to its original color, was proven to be true. Peanut oil has the highest saturated fat content and the lowest proportion of unsaturated fat among the 5 types of cooking oil tested. As iodine reacts with unsaturated oil to lose its color, a lower proportion of unsaturated oil content will require a longer reaction time for the iodine in the oil to lose its color.

The consumption of unsaturated fat instead of saturated fat is recommended to maintain a healthy heart, as well as to reduce the risk of stroke and cancer. Oils that are low in saturated fat and high in unsaturated fat should be used in cooking.

Understanding differences between fats, which can be relayed by data such as iodine value, is essential for educating the public on the health risks and benefits of these substances. With knowledge of the properties of different lipids, scientists can better inform and aid the public with its dietary choices, contributing to generally healthier eating practices.
Introduction
Fats, oils and waxes belong to a group of compounds called lipids. Fats and oils have the same chemical structure. Fats that are liquid at room temperature are called oils. Fats and oils are insoluble (do not dissolve) in water. The cell membrane is made up of lipids and proteins.

Fats and oils are made-up of two kinds of molecules, glycerol and fatty acids. Three fatty acids are bonded to one glycerol to form a lipid called a triglyceride.
Each fatty acid is made of a chain of carbon atoms with hydrogen atoms attached. There are two kinds of fatty acid: saturated and unsaturated. Bonds between carbons may be single (C-C) or double (C=C). The presence of double bonds implies that the carbon chain of a lipid is not saturated with hydrogen atoms. That is, less than the maximum number of hydrogen atoms possible is bound to the carbon. The following diagrams illustrate saturated and unsaturated fatty acid lipids.
Diets high in saturated fat are linked to high blood cholesterol levels and heart disease. High-fat diets can also increase the risk for obesity and cancer.

To test if a lipid is saturated or unsaturated iodine is added. If the iodine changes from brown to clear the lipid is unsaturated. If the iodine does not change colors the lipid is saturated.

Iodine + Lipid = clear color (unsaturated)

Iodine + Lipid = brown color (saturated)

To test for the degree of lipid saturation iodine is added to the unsaturated lipid. The iodine will attach itself to one of the double bonds which causes de-colorization of the iodine. As shown in the following illustration.
Two minutes, 23 seconds
2:23.11
Fifty-four seconds
54.71
One minute, eight seconds
1:08.22
Fifty seven seconds
57.06
One minute, fourteen seconds
1:14.31
Full transcript