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Multiprocessor Systems. Type of Multiprocessors. CHANG JIAN HUI I11008794 TERENCE TAN SUAN GUAN I10006517 HENRY HANSEN I10007282

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Transcript of Multiprocessor Systems. Type of Multiprocessors. CHANG JIAN HUI I11008794 TERENCE TAN SUAN GUAN I10006517 HENRY HANSEN I10007282

A method of processing in which multiple processors work together on the same task is called symmetric multiprocessing. Each processor runs an identical copy of the same operating system.
Symmetric multiprocessing treats all processors equally. I/O can be processed on any processor. The processors communicate with each other as needed. It enables many processes to be run at once without degrading performance. Non-Uniform Memory Access, a type of parallel processing architecture in which each processor has its own local memory but can also access memory owned by other processors. It's called non-uniform because the memory access times are faster when a processor accesses its own memory than when it borrows memory from another processor. A limitation of SMP is that as microprocessors are added, the shared bus get overloaded and becomes a performance bottleneck. NUMA systems thus assign each processor a dedicated area of memory that it can access directly without having to use the main bus. It's much faster to read/write to this local memory. Symmetric Multiprocessor Master-slave multiprocessor is not reliable as if the master processor fails the whole system goes down.
Poor use of resource – Slave free, Master occupied.
Level of interruptions increases as slave processors will interrupt the master processor. Disadvantages of Master-Slave Simplicity of the scheduling of operating system .
Functions are only performed by the master processor.
Data structure is only accessed by one processor.
Conflict free. Advantages of Master-Slave Complex OS
Expensive Disadvantages Faster Processing
Increase software option
Multitasking
Reduce Risk Advantages Advantages and Disadvantages a single computer system that composed of two (or more) processing units (CPUs) within integrated control

simultaneous processing of two (or more) portions of the same program by two (or more) processing units What is Multiprocessor Types of multiprocessor Multiprocessor Master-slave multiprocessor is not reliable as if the master processor fails the whole system goes down.

Poor use of resource – Slave free, Master occupied.

Level of interruptions increases as slave processors will interrupt the master processor. Disadvantages of Master-Slave It is an asymmetric multi-processing system.

What is a Master-Slave concept?

Example, children reporting to their parents.

What are the job specifications for the Master processor? Simplicity of the scheduling of operating system .

Functions are only performed by the master processor.

Data structure is only accessed by one processor.

Conflict free. Advantages of Master-Slave Master-Slave Multiprocessor Parallel execution of single task

During process failure it degrades

Inefficient configuration as the problem of replication arises between supervisor/kernel/data structure code and each processor

Difficult to detect if one of the processor is suffering failure Disadvantage Not prone to catastrophic system failures

Efficiency in processing Advantage Advantages & Disadvantages to ensure the most efficient use of resources

job scheduling is based on requirements and policies

new jobs will be send to
lightest load
idle processors
best combination of output devices available. Process receives a command

assigned to one processor

instruction will remain with the same processer until it ended

must have a synchronized global tables
to avoid redundancy Process one of the three common types of multiprocessor systems

a number of independent processing systems

Linked by common data structures that allow communications between processors

maintains its own commands and input output management tables What is separate supervisors? Separate Supervisors Multiprocessors access protection is maintained

achieved by using some synchronization mechanism like semaphores

A.k.a loosely coupled multiprocessing system

Difference from single-processing system is the present of communication and cooperation What is separate supervisors? - concluded that there is still present multiple types of multi-processor systems being popularly used today

- Each of them have their own unique qualities, advantages and disadvantages

-each has different types of requirements which performs different task

-uniquely tailored to specific systems Conclusion
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