Answers

See: Charles Capps, "Near Field or Far Field," EDN, August 16, 2001 pp. 95-102

Schantz, Hans G., “On the Superposition and Elastic Recoil of Electromagnetic Waves,” FERMAT, Vol. 4, No. 2, July-August 2014 [ART-2014-Vol4-Jul_Aug-002]. See also http://arxiv.org/abs/1407.1800

Gaussian Impulses

Average Energy Velocity for Various VSWR

Elemental Waves

Image Theory

Arbitrary Impulses

Schantz, Hans G., “On the Superposition and Elastic Recoil of Electromagnetic Waves,” FERMAT, Vol. 4, No. 2, July-August 2014 [ART-2014-Vol4-Jul_Aug-002]. See also http://arxiv.org/abs/1407.1800

Symmetric Impulses

Spacetime Diagrams

Electromagnetic Newton's Cradle

Don't Cross the Streams!

Energy velocity in terms of the normalized impedance…

Energy Velocity & Impedance

Normalized Impedance

Field Impedance

Extend application of impedance from circuits to fields,

Regard impedance as an attribute of the field as well as the medium

Sergei Schelkunoff

(1897-1992)

Oliver Heaviside

(1850-1925)

John Henry Poynting

(1852-1914)

Schelkunoff, S. A., “The Impedance Concept and Its Application to Problems of Reflection, Refraction, Shielding and Power Absorption,” The Bell System Technical Journal, Vol. 17, No. 1, 1938, p. 17-48.

Why use the more complicated Poynting-Heaviside Theory?

Skin Effect

AC Resistance

Electron Drift Velocity

Compare

These Models...

Field Impedance

(courtesy Mt. Holyoke College)

Heaviside, Oliver,

Electrical Papers,

Vol. 1, London: The Electrician Publishing Company, 1892, pp. 449-450. Originally published as “Electromagnetic Induction and Its Propagation,” in The Electrician, February 21, 1885.

Poynting, John Henry, “On the Transfer of Energy in the Electromagnetic Field,” Philosophical Transactions, Royal Society, London, Vol. 175 Part II, 1885, pp. 334-361.

Electromagnetic Energy Flow

Energy Velocity

(Plane Wave)

Heaviside, Oliver,

Electromagnetic Theory

, Vol. 1, The Electrician, London, 1893, pp. 78-80. In particular see Equation (15) on p. 79: http://bit.ly/1fmBZsw

**What is the Near Field?**

A New

Approach

Open and Short

Energy Velocity

Oliver Heaviside,

Electromagnetic Theory

, Vol. 1, (London: “The Electrician” Printing and Publishing Company, 1893), pp. 78-80. See: http://bit.ly/uCSzEw

Harry Bateman,

The Mathematical Analysis of Electrical and Optical Wave-Motion On the Basis of Maxwell’s Equations

, Cambridge University Press, 1915, p. 6. See: http://bit.ly/1ykUfeE

H. Schantz, “Electromagnetic Energy Around Hertzian Dipoles,” IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine, Vol. 43, April 2001, pp. 50-62. See: http://bit.ly/xGBOtb

Gerald Kaiser “Electromagnetic inertia, reactive energy and energy flow velocity,” 2011 J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 44 345206 http://arxiv.org/abs/1105.4834

Energy velocity

Oliver Heaviside (1850-1925)

Harry Bateman (1882-1946) in 1915,

v

< 1

Gerald Kaiser in 2011,

v

as a local time dependent characteristic of electromagnetic fields

Superposition & Analysis

What are we Ignoring?

What's

Really Going On?

**Implications**

Superposition: strong & weak

Superposition & analysis

What are we ignoring?

What's "really" going on?

What Else Are

We Ignoring?

What else are we ignoring?

Solar Flux (~1kW per

square meter)

Infrared Thermal Flux

Every Other Radio Signal

The implications?

Unlikely any of the transmitted energy ends up at the receiver

Average energy velocity less than c

Reality mostly near fields and standing waves, not far fields

Dirac's

Mistake?

Photon - Photon Interactions?

Photons & Standing Waves

Implications

For Physics

Energy flows in astrophysics

Energy associated with fields and waves from distant sources arises locally

The way the Lagrangian density varies in time and space gives rise to Maxwell's equations and all of electromagnetics through the principle of least action.

The energy balance determines how electromagnetics works.

**What**

is the

"Near Field?"

is the

"Near Field?"

**Hans G. Schantz, CTO**

Q-Track Corporation

KC5VLD

August 20-21, 2016

h.schantz@q-track.com

Blog: www.aetherczar.com

Twitter: @aetherczar

Q-Track Corporation

KC5VLD

August 20-21, 2016

h.schantz@q-track.com

Blog: www.aetherczar.com

Twitter: @aetherczar

**Introduction**

**Overview: What is the Near Field?**

Basics of EM and Energy Flow

How Near and Reactive Fields Work

Examples

Applications

Basics of EM and Energy Flow

How Near and Reactive Fields Work

Examples

Applications

**Key Ideas**

The Electric-Magnetic Balance

How Radio Waves "Bounce"

Application to Understanding Antennas and How Electromagnetics Works

The Electric-Magnetic Balance

How Radio Waves "Bounce"

Application to Understanding Antennas and How Electromagnetics Works

Fields guide and perturb energy flow

Energy retains same order

Typical "drift" velocity < c

EM & QM

Energy Flow

EM Energy Flow Suggests Pilot Wave (deBroglie-Bohm) Quantum Mechanics

EM Waves Guide Energy

QM Waves Guide Particles

Bohmian Trajectories

"

Interference between two different photons never occurs.

"

-P.A.M. Dirac,

The Principles of Quantum Mechanics

, 4th ed. p. 9

Paul Dirac

(1902-1984)

**How Electromagnetics Works**

**Summary**

**New interpretation -**

not

new physics

Electric-Magnetic Balance Fundamental to Electromagnetics

Impedance

Normalized Lagrangian

Impedance Discontinuities in Media

or in Fields

Reflect Energy

Energy flow and field propagation follow different trajectories

not

new physics

Electric-Magnetic Balance Fundamental to Electromagnetics

Impedance

Normalized Lagrangian

Impedance Discontinuities in Media

or in Fields

Reflect Energy

Energy flow and field propagation follow different trajectories

**Learn More**

**Details in**

The Art and Science of Ultrawideband Antennas

http://bit.ly/UWBBook

E-Mail:

h.schantz@q-track.com

Twitter:

@aetherczar

Blog: http://www.aetherczar.com

The Art and Science of Ultrawideband Antennas

http://bit.ly/UWBBook

E-Mail:

h.schantz@q-track.com

Twitter:

@aetherczar

Blog: http://www.aetherczar.com

**Huntsville Hamfest**

2016

2016

**Electromagnetic Basics**

The Art and Science of UWB Antennas

, 2015, p. 289-292

The Art and Science of UWB Antennas

, 2015, pp. 282-283

Oliver Lodge

(1851-1940)

Lodge, Oliver, "Electrical Theory. Letters to Dr. Lodge,"

The Electrician

21, 1888, p. 829-831

1-D Transmission Line

Assign direction to impedance, and

Generalize the 1-D transmission line concept to higher dimensional problems in which some of the dimensions may be neglected.

One Dimensional Transmission Line

The Art and Science of UWB Antennas

, 2015, p. 289-292

Matched

(R = Z0)

Charging a Capacitor

High Source Z

(R = 10 Z0)

Low

Source Z

(R = 0.1 Z0)

**Examples:**

The Art and Science of UWB Antennas

, 2015, p. 289-292

Ivor Catt, M. F. Davidson, D. S. Walton, “Displacement Current, and How to Get Rid of It”,

Wirelesss World

, pp. 51-52 (Dec 1978).

The Art and Science of UWB Antennas

, 2015, Problem 4.6, p. 183

Ramo, Whinnery and Van Duzer,

Fields and Waves in Communications

Engineering

, 1994, Chapter 5

Dipole Impedance and Power

The Art and Science of UWB Antennas

, 2015, pp. 282-283

H. Meinke and F. Landstorfer,

Energy ﬂow in wave ﬁelds,

NTG-Fachberichte Antennen 57, 42 (1977)

A&S pp. 322-329

Schantz, Hans, "Electromagnetic energy about Hertzian dipoles," IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine, April 2001, pp. 50–62.

Schelkunoff's

Dipole Impedance

Smith-Carter Chart

Power Factor

Radial Distance (wavelengths)

Time (periods)

Harmonic Dipole

Kirk T. McDonald, “Radiation in the Near Zone of a Center Fed Linear Antenna,“ June 21, 2004, updated August 7, 2012

see: http://www.academia.edu/7633567/Radiation_in_the_Near_Zone_of_a_Center-Fed_Linear_Antenna (calculation by Alan Boswell)

S.A. Schelkunoﬀ and H.T. Friis,

Antennas: Theory and Practice

,

New York: Wiley, 1952, pp. 124-125

Time Average Energy Flow

Energy Flow Streamlines and Antenna Design

Landstorfer, F.M., and R.R. Sacher,

Optimisation of Wire Antennas

,

Letchworth, England: Research Studies Press, Ltd., 1985.

See in particular Chapter 4.

Standard Three-Quarter Wave Monopole

Optimized Three-Quarter Wave Monopole

Energy Flow Streamlines

and Antenna Design

H. Meinke and F. Landstorfer,

Energy ﬂow in wave ﬁelds,

NTG-Fachberichte Antennen 57, 42 (1977)

Superposition: Strong or Weak?

No Energy Flow

No NET Energy Flow

Strong:

Many causes, but one

E

,

H

,

S

Weak:

Multiple

E

's,

H

's,

S

's

Why strong superposition?

Occam's Razor

Second Law of Thermodynamics

**Reactive Energy Flow & Physics**

QM &

Pilot Waves

"Electromagnetic energy flow lines as possible paths of photons"

M. Davidovic, A. S. Sanz, D. Arsenovic, M. Bozic, S. Miret-Artes

See arXiv:0805.3330v2

References:

"Electromagnetic energy flow lines as possible paths of photons," M. Davidovic, A. S. Sanz, D. Arsenovic, M. Bozic, S. Miret-Artes. See arXiv:0805.3330v2

T. Norsen, “The pilot-wave perspective on quantum scattering and tunneling,” American Journal of Physics, Vol. 81 No. 4, April 2013, pp. 258-266.

M. Davidovic, et al, “Electromagnetic energy flowlines as possible paths of photons,” Phys. Scr. T135, 14009 (2009) [arXiv:0805.3330].

S. Kocsis et al, “Observing the Average Trajectories of Single Photons in a Two-Slit Interferometer,” Science Vol. 332, 3 June, 2011, pp. 1170-1173.

K.Y. Bliokh, et al, “Photon trajectories, anomalous velocities and weak measurements: a classical interpretation,” New Journal of Physics, Vol. 15, (2013), pp. 1-17.

Electric vs

Magnetic Antennas

Two -20dBi ESAs

NEC 2D simulation of gain as a function of distance from PEC plane

"Electric" and "Magnetic" gain not equivalent

Combine for better multipath performance

Diffraction

References:

R.D. Prosser, “The Interpretation of Diffraction and Interference in Terms of Energy Flow,” International Journal of Theoretical Physics, Vol. 15, No. 3 (1976), pp. 169-180.

Vladimir Temari: http://www.ne.jp/asahi/tamari/vladimir/cancellationofdiffraction/image004.jpg

Diffraction

See:

M. Gondran and A. Gondran, “Energy flow lines and the spot of Poisson-Arago,” American Journal of Physics, Vol. 78, no. 6, pp. 598-602 [arXiv:0909.2302]

See: http://alexandre.gondran.free.fr/Fichiers/Energy_Flow_lines_Poisson_Arago.pdf

Lower Higher

Frequency

Near-Field Electromagnetic Ranging (NFER)

Range: 20-60m

Accuracy: 30cm-1m

Frequency ~1MHz

Capacity: ~80 tags

at 1Hz update

Q-Track Corporation

(www.q-track.com)

**Applications**

Indoor Location

Electric versus Magnetic Antennas

Understanding and Designing Antennas

Understanding Diffraction & Interference

Implications for Physics

Deterministic approach to QM

deBroglie & Born (1926-1927)

Bohm (1952)

Summary

of the Basics

Static:

E = 0 or H = 0

z

= 0 or infinity

or

v = 0

Radiation:

E /H = Zs

v = c

Reactive:

0 <

z

< 1 or

1 <

z

< infinity

or

v = S/u

Normalized

Lagrangian

Lagrangian:

Hamiltonian:

Normalized Lagrangian:

Reactive Fields

Note:

Assuming 1-D T-Line or

Do Photons Interfere?

Macroscopic EM waves exhibit a balance of E and H energy

Photons are quantized chunks of balanced electric and magnetic energy

Interference upsets the balance creating either virtual electric or virtual magnetic photons

Photons characterized by:

Relatively short mean free path

Relatively low drift velocity

Analogous to conduction

EM Energy Flow:

Normalized Impedance:

Normalized Lagrangian:

Continuum:

1-D Transmission Lines

EM Velocity:

Planetary

Motion

Fields

"

I can hardly imagine anyone, who knows the agreement between observation and calculation based on action at a distance, to hesitate an instant between this simple and precise action, on the one hand, and anything so vague and varying as lines of force on the other.

"

George Airy (1801-1891)

Correct

Models

Correspond to how reality really works

Integrate diverse facts into a simple conceptual model, and

Lay a foundation for further progress

Models & Reality

Questions?

Standing Waves:

Explain how the macroscopic characteristics of standing waves arise from "non-interacting" photons.

Superposition:

Strong or Weak?

Parsimony

Second Law of Thermodynamics