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The Space Race and Beyond

Chapter 14 Early Space Exploration (Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, and the Space Shuttles) Sixth Grade Science
by

Cindy Mullikin

on 14 October 2016

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Transcript of The Space Race and Beyond

President Eisenhower creates National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), U.S. Air Force, and The National Reconnaissance Office.
In 1958, Explorer 1 was designed by U.S. Army under direction of U.S. rocket scientist, Wernher von Braun.
Soviet launched Luna 2
The Space Race
Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo

To grasp the importance of our race to the moon, it is necessary for you to understand what was going on politically at the time.
Space Exploration begins in the early 1950s
The United States won the Space Race by landing on the moon first. Apollo 11 landed on the moon July 20, 1969. We are the only country to walk on the moon so far.

After WWII, the U.S. and the USSR competed to capture German rocket engineers, rockets, and the designs on which they were based.

October 4th 1957 the Soviet Union launched Sputnik. (First satellite into Earth's orbit)
This grabbed our attention because it showed us what the Soviet military was capable of building.
Many people thought that the winner of the space race would determine the strongest power!
The Space Race (1957-1975): was a competition between the Soviet Union and the United States for dominance in space exploration.
The main part of this rivalry focused on being first in space exploration, which was seen as necessary for national security and technological superiority.
Picture of USA and USSR flag with a satellite on it.
Time magazine of Wernher Von Braun.
1st man on the moon: Neil Armstrong.
NASA's Mercury Project
1 Man Spacecraft
1958-1962

April 1961- Yuri Gagarin was not only the first person in space but the first person to orbit the Earth on the same mission, Vostok 1. We had not even put a man in space.....they were up and orbiting!!!

In February of 1962, John Glenn became the first American to orbit Earth.This was nearly a whole year behind the Soviets. We were losing this race.

Gemini Project
2 Man Spacecraft
1962-1967
Time Magazine's interpretation
of The Space Race
Goals:
1. To establish space technology
2. To become #1 in space
3. To explore the moon and to learn to work on the moon.

Apollo Project
3 Man Spacecraft
1967-1972

Sputnik
Explorer 1 orbits Earth in January of 1958. This was 4 months after Sputnik.
Finally in May 1961, Alan Shepard became the 1st American in space, but he did not orbit.
Ed White was the first American to walk in space.

Goals
1. To see if we could spend more time in space
2. To see if we could survive outside the space ship in a space suit
3. To see if we could connect two space ships together.

1. To get a man in orbit
2. To see how being in space affected a man
3. To bring both the people and the space ship safely back
After Skylab
The Space Shuttle
7 Man Reusable Spacecraft
1981-2011
Names of Shuttles
1. Columbia
2. Challenger
3. Discovery
4. Atlantis
5. Endeavor
Goals:
1. To carry people into orbit
2. To launch, recover and repair satellites and telescopes
3. To conduct cutting-edge research on board
4. To build the largest structure in space, the International Space Station.

What is next for NASA?
NASA retired the space shuttles in 2011. We now transport our astronauts to the ISS using the Russian trasnport system. This costs over 70 million for each astronaut.
Goals of the Mercury Project
Our first space lab was called Skylab. The Skylab program proved that humans could live and work in outer space for extended periods of time.
Our next adventure will be to Mars. This is set for the year 2020.
Full transcript