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Positive Classrooms and Behavior Management

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Nicole Vermillion

on 10 December 2013

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Transcript of Positive Classrooms and Behavior Management

A Positive Classroom...
Classroom Layout- Desks
Classrooms should be laid out in a way that fosters positive learning
Students should be able to collaborate without much desk movement
Students should be able to see and hear the teacher clearly at all times
Desks will be laid out in a way where students can work in a group
The traditional layout of desks in row can be intimidating and boring to students
This layout will promote engagement and collaboration
Classroom Layout-

Classroom will be painted in a way that does not distract the students but also promotes a positive learning environment
The wall where the teacher gives instruction will be painted a bold color to gather attention and the other walls will be painted a complementary color but more muted
For instance, the color of the wall where the teacher lectures can be painted a bright cobalt blue while the other walls can be painted a sky blue to foster a calm environment where students are open to new ideas while working with each other in groups
On the walls, teacher should post motivational posters and student work
Depending on the subject being taught, different works of art or posters can be on display
For instance, an English teacher can display posters of famous authors, a history teacher can display propaganda posters from World War II and a biology teacher can display posters highlighting the basics of genetics
Teacher should also place "fun" items in the classroom such as bean bags, box of fidgets (stress balls, paper clips, etc.), fish tanks, an "About the Teacher" poster, plants, etc.
Long and Williams feel that when students contribute to classroom design, they feel a sense of ownership and pride
Classroom rules and expectations will also be posted where they are easily visible and referred to
Rules & Expectations
According to Long and Williams, students should be involved in developing class rules. Students need to recognize that they have a stake in how the classroom operates.

1) Respect teacher and fellow classmates
2) Be in your seat when the bell rings for the start of class
3) Raise hand when you want to speak in class
4) No food allowed in the classroom (gum, candy, drinks)
5) Bathroom breaks only 15 minutes before class is over, or when working independently
6) No talking while teacher is lecturing or classmates are contributing
7) Take pride in your work
8) Complete work in a timely fashion
9) Keep hands to yourself
10)Positive comments only
11) Maintain a neat classroom
12) Give your best effort at all times

Achiever's Academy
To provide an education that meets the needs of all students; an education that will promote cognitive, physical, and social growth and prepare students for life beyond high school.
Important to reinforce behaviors that teachers want to see in the classroom
BF Skinner was a proponent of the following theory: behavior which is reinforced is repeated and behavior which is not reinforced is weakened
Positive Reinforcement
With some students that are hard to reach with traditional positive reinforcement programs, behavior contracts can be used
Can be used to promote positive behaviors such as turning in assignments, staying on task, not blurting out responses without raising a hand, etc.
The contract spells out in detail expectations of both the student and the teacher
Since the student is involved in the behavior contract development, they may be more motivated to live up to the terms of the contract
Behavior Contracts
A token economy is an intensive, in-class positive reinforcement program for building up and maintaining appropriate classroom performance and behavior
Token Economy System
In the article, "The Perils and Promises of Praise", Carol Dweck warns that the wrong kind of praise from teachers can create self-defeating behaviors in students
Teacher should praise students for the effort they put into something and not intelligence alone
Fixed Mind Set: Students care about whether or not they will be judged as smart and as a result, do not recover from setbacks
Growth Mind Set: Students think they can improve with a certain amount of effort which as a result inspires them to work harder when setbacks arise
Beware the wrong kind of praise...
For children with ADD, the token system can be as powerful as medication.

Token programs have the advantage of providing more immediate rewards than home-based programs.
Advantages of the Token Economy System
Steps of the classroom token economy
1) Select behaviors to target
2)Develop a methods for keeping track of token or points
3)Identify powerful rewards
4)Establish goals
5)Explain the program to the child
6)Teachers provides feedback
7)Teacher provides reward
8) Changing the program
Implementing a Positive Reinforcement Plan
Teachers should have a list of social, activity
and tangible reinforcers. The following
is a potential list to be used by

Potential Academic Reinforcers:
Homework passes
In class work time for projects
Bonus points on quizzes on tests with Jeopardy test prep games
Potential Non Academic Reinforcers:
Social time between peers
A Break for Music with Student Headphones
Pizza Party or Candy Distibution for good behavior
Implementing a Positive Reinforcement Plan
The most powerful incentives/reinforcers should be used during instructional time. Since the potential for disruption is greatest during instruction, frequent encouragement like reinforcers are needed.

For instance, homework passes or a pizza party can be distributed during instructional time where listening to music can be an incentive given when good behavior is displayed outside of the classroom.
Implementing a Positive Reinforcement Plan
Reinforcement plans need to be restructured throughout the school year. The effectiveness of a reinforcer will diminish if it is used continuously.

For instance, if a class average on a test needed to be a 80% in order for the class to get a reinforcer, now make it an 85% to shake the routine up a bit. Another way this can be done it to require more instances of a good behavior to earn a reinforcer.
Implementing a Positive Reinforcement Plan
Positive reinforcement needs to be used frequently and intensively, especially when students are faced with a new or difficult task or subject matter.

Positive reinforcement should also be delivered within close proximity of the student if at all possible. Proximity to a student will increase the effectiveness of the positive reinforcement plan.
Implementing a Positive Reinforcement Plan
Different types of positive reinforcement can be used:

Tangible: physical object given as a reward such as school supplies, tokens, stickers, etc.

Social: interactions between two or more people such as social time for 5 minutes at the end of class, group work on homework to get a head start, etc.

Activity: activities that students are allowed to do as a reward for appropriate behavior such as Jeopardy, watching music videos as a class, free time in the gym, etc.
Parental Involvement in High School
Studies show that parental involvement is an important contributor to children's school success. (Chen and Chandler, 2001)

Unfortunately, parental involvement is limited or nonexistent and usually students with the greatest need for support experience the least parental involvement.

A number of factors impact the extent to which parents get involved with their child's school experience:

child's grade level
parental education level
parental income
Successful parental involvement is the active ongoing, participation of a parent or primary caregiver in the education of his or her child.

To foster successful parental involvement, our school will ensure that the following 6 steps are implemented by school administrators and teachers.
Getting parents involved...
(School Prevention)
The first step is prevention.
All grades will attend an informative bullying seminar during the first month of school
Bullying prevention and awareness will be included in the Second Step program which all freshman and sophomores will partake in
Students and parents will be encouraged to anonymously report bullying by using the BullyFree Dropbox on the school homepage
It is important for schools to assist families with parenting sills.

Parents should understand the basic family responsibilities they should provide to their child.

Topics should include housing, health, nutrition, clothing, safety and other supportive home conditions.

To assist with parenting, our school is implementing a weekly workshop program that will be held once a week staring in mid-August through the end of September. 6 topics will be covered with guest speakers and refreshments to encourage attendance.
Assisting with Parenting
BULLYING PLAN (Aggressors)
Bullying will
be tolerated.
If a student is found guilty of bullying, a first offense will result in suspension at minimum
Second offenders will face two weeks suspension and will have to complete an extra bullying prevention course during scheduled electives upon returning to school
Third offenders face expulsion

Effective communication from school to home about school programs and student progress is vital.

Effective communication includes:
Parent Teacher Conferences
Letters from the Teacher to Home
Monthly Recaps by e-mail
Phone calls and emails home
Parent-Teacher Conferences

Research shows that parents are more likely to attend school events involving contact with their child's teacher, especially if communication channels are already open (Carey and Farris, 1996).
Supporting Effective Communication
BULLYING PLAN (Teachers/Staff)
Teachers are obligated to write an incedent report regarding all incidents of bullying they witness or are aware of

School counselors will be made aware of all incidents of bullying pertaining to their students

Administration will conduct an investigation comprised of
an interview of the reporter and victim
an interview of the aggressor
any tangible, written, or electronic evidence
Parents of aggressors and victims will be made aware
It is important that parents feel that they are an important part of the school environment.

The school will provide volunteer opportunities in various locations at various times.

For example, parents will be encouraged to to be the classroom parent of the week. On that day, the parent(s) can come to class, help with activities, chaperone field trips, etc.
Encouraging Parental Volunteering
Parents should be involved with their children's homework. Homework can become a contentious area for teachers, students and parents (Paulu, 1998).

Teachers must ensure that homework is practical as well as academic (Long and Williams).

Students and parents should have a clear understanding of homework demands. Expectations should be clarified through class newsletter, telephone conversations, emails or through the school website where homework is posted.
Helping with Learning at Home
It is vital that teachers can relay feedback to parents and just as important that parents relay feedback to the school (Long and Williams).

Parents should be encouraged to become parent leaders and representatives in PTA's, PTO's, advisory councils, school site management teams, hiring committees, and independent school advisory groups.
Parents Involved in Decision Making
Bullying can range from simple one-on-one bullying to more complex bullying in which the bully may have on or more 'helpers' who is willing to assist the bully in his or her action.

Bullying can include the following types of actions: emotional, verbal, and physical, and cyber-bullying.

Bulling can be direct or indirect. It can happen in any situation in which there is human interaction.

The one type of bullying that has gained a strong foothold in our society lately is cyber-bullying.

This type of bullying is possible due to advances in technology and the easy access to social media
In order for students to be successful, parents and the community need to be involved in education.

There are many possible opportunities for community relationships with students including volunteering, work opportunities and apprenticeships.
Hazing can be classified into three different types:

1) subtle hazing
2)harassment hazing
3)violent hazing

Hazing is not a behavior that is well understood because the nature of this activity is concealed from the public. It is usually a ritual performed in the secrecy of a particular group as it is often done in colleges and universities.

Subtle hazing

behaviors emphasize a power imbalance between new members and existing members of a group or a team

Violent hazing
- defined as behaviors that have the potential to cause physical and/or emotional, or harm. Such behaviors include forced or coerced alcohol or other drug use, beating, paddling, or other forms of assault, water intoxication, burning, public nudity, and exposure to cold
weather or extreme heat without proper protection.

Parents and Community Collaboration
Our school aims to be a place where students feel safe coming. Victims of bullying will be provided with various supports
Victims of bullying will be referred to school guidance counselors
Victims may be referred to self defense and assertiveness training programs implemented by school adjustment counselors
Victims will have the option of creating a Safety Plan with a designated counselor or administrator in order to restore a feeling of security

Sexual Harassment
Sexual harassment is defined as bullying or coercion of a sexual nature, or the unwelcome or inappropriate promise of rewards in exchange for sexual favors. In many places sexual harassment is illegal.

Historically, the victims of this type of abuse have been women, although men can also be subjected to this type of abuse as well.

As part of the school's plan, students will have to undergo an awareness curriculum so students become aware of what sexual harassment is and how to report it.

Bullying is defined as the use of force, threat, or coercion to abuse, intimidate, or aggressively impose domination over other.

The behavior is often repeated and habitual.
Positive interventions to reduce misbehavior
A general guideline for reducing misbehavior is to use the least intrusive and least aversive procedure that will stop the misbehavior
How is it done?
Through Universal Design for Learning....

3 Principles
Principle 1: Provide multiple means of representation (the what of learning)
Principle 2: Provide multiple means of action and expression (the how of learning)
Principle 3: Provide multiple means of engagement (the why of learning)

Pyramid Learning: SOME, MOST, ALL

Merit & De-merit System
Who is it for?
- Federal Law
The Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004 (IDEA) aligns IDEA closely to the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB), helping to ensure equity, accountability and excellence in education for children with disabilities.

Differentiated Instruction would also benefit gifted students.

Helping Students Develop Effective Work Habits
Poor organization of work materials often undermines student performance.

To help increase performance level, students need to be taught how to select task-related materials and how to arrange their materials to allow efficient retrieval of what is needed.

Out-of-School Time
-Students’ out-of-school time can have a profound impact in their effectiveness in the classroom.
-Students can use more sleep time, and according to research, students that sleep anywhere from 9 to 10 hours perform better in school and are engaged in school work.
-As an incentive, our school could have a pizza party once a month for those students who had an adequate amount of sleep. Each day, the students will log their sleep time and before the pizza party, a graph will be created to showcase the amount of time each student slept during that month.
Creating a Constructive & Orderly Classroom
-Teacher will identify specific places to store materials used by both teachers and students
-A well-organized classroom will help students locate commonly used materials and equipment easier
-A system will be developed for minimizing clutter in the classroom
-Establishing a routine for periodically cleaning furniture and work spaces
-Adding items that will enhance the physical appeal of the classroom will help students stay focused on task

Creating a Constructive & Orderly Classroom
Reinforce good work habits
Establish mutual respect
Allow students to feel comfortable and part of the team
Encourage students to do their best
“Before we can expect students to improve their work habits, we must stop reinforcing their poor work habits.”

Punctual Homework
Have a reward system in place for students that complete assignments on time!

For example:
Give out homework passes for a week of completed homework.
Encourage students to get to class on time for a Do-Now Activity
Ask students how you can help them to be on time

Encouraging Collaboration
Students learn valuable skills when working in a group! They can...

Learn to share and respect different options
Learn to criticize ideas, not people
Learn to plan activities
Learn to encourage others

Participating in group activities will help students be more successful in their cooperative learning.

"Fair is not everyone
getting the same thing.
Fair is everyone getting
what they need."
What is it?
Varying instruction and assignments to students' varying abilities, readiness, preferred modes of learning, and needs.

The following infractions are not eligible for the merit/de-merit system: bullying, cyber bullying, hazing, physical violence, destruction of school property, drugs and sexual harassment. Given the serious nature of these bad behaviors, they need to be handled seriously by school administration.

The consequences for bad behaviors will be issued in the form of de-merits after they are sent to the office by teachers and school personnel. For poor behaviors such as tardiness, swearing, disrespect, destruction of school property. Each infraction is worth one de-merit and when a student receives ten de-merits, they will receive a Saturday detention held twice a month and monitored by teachings on an alternating schedule.

In order to foster a positive environment, students are given the opportunity to earn merits that will negate de-merits. For instance, if a student is seen helping another student, a teacher can issue a merit that can counter act a de-merit.

If a student receives fifty de-merits, they will be suspended for two days. Three suspensions equal an expulsion.

Utilizes pre-assessment and post-assessment
Incorporates students' interests
More engaging lessons
Fewer discipline problems
Increased student motivation and autonomy
School Wide Management
& Behavior Plan

Collaborative Post-Test
& Performance Assessment

Alexandra Castro
Ruth Gomes
Nicole Vermillion
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