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The Rise of Islam

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by

Kristina Ward

on 2 February 2016

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Transcript of The Rise of Islam

The Rise of Islam
Muhammad Becomes God's Messenger
troubled by the moral ills of Meccan society
40 years old:
meditated in cave in the desert
hears angel Gabriel's voice
Khadija convinces him to accept the call
becomes 1st convert
"Islam" comes from Arabic word meaning "to submit to God"
Arabic for God = ?
Impact of Islam on Women
women inherited less than men; more difficulty in getting a divorce
Muslims Follow Duties
mosque
: house of worship
official is called a
muezzin
calls faithful to prayer
hajj
: pilgrimage to Mecca
jihad
: struggle in God's service
The Hijra: A Turning Point
Mecca's merchants are angered by Muhammad
less pilgrims to Kaaba means less profit
622: Muhammad & disciples left under threat of murder
left for
Yahtrib (
later renamed
Medina
(city of the Prophet))
journey known as
hijra
first year on the Muslim calendar
Origins
Islam developed in the Arabian peninsula
mostly desert
Bedouins
(nomadic herders)
Fight Against the Meccans
Muhammad returns triumphantly to Mecca in 630
destroys idols in Kaaba
rededicates Kaaba to Allah
Death: 632
Islam: A Way of Life
Muslim scholars developed the
Sharia
body of law that includes interpretation of the Quran
What does it regulate?
Teachings of Islam
monotheism
Quran
: sacred text of Islam
God is all powerful & compassionate
people are responsible for their own actions
no priests
other prophets: Abraham, Moses, Jesus; Muhammad is last & greatest
Impact of Islam on Women
Islam extended rights & protection to women by affirming the spiritual equality of all Muslims
prohibited killing of daughters, granted women an inheritance, allowed women to reject a marriage offer
encouraged education for men and women
in order to study Quran
Muhammad Becomes a Prophet
Muhammad
born Mecca around 570.
Mecca
: bustling market town
thriving pilgrimage center
Kaaba: temple for pagan gods/goddesses
Turning Point
Muslims in Medina become known as "
umma
" or community of Muslims
loyalty to umma was more important than old family rivalries
Muhammad created rules to govern Muslims; peace among the clans
Meccan rulers grew more hostile towards Muslims
Muslims attacked several caravans; prepared for war
Muslims Study the Quran
God's message as it was given to Muhammad
ethical standards: honesty, generosity, social justice
written in Arabic
all Muslims & converts learn Arabic
**unifying factor**
"People of the Book"
Muslims, Christians, & Jews all worship same God
Quran is God's
final
revelation
Hebrew scripture & Christian Bibles are earlier revelations
worked as a shepherd among Bedouins
became wealthy merchant
married
Khadija
; prosperous caravan owner
honest in business; devoted father & husband
As Islam spread: adopted practices of conquered peoples
example: veiling upper-class women & secluding them to a separate part of the home (Persian tradition)
rural areas: work means no veils; modest dress
Full transcript