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Particle Accelerators

the power of subatomic particles
by

Sonesh Patel

on 20 May 2013

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Transcript of Particle Accelerators

Particle Accelerators + - The positively-charged proton is attracted to the plate because the plate has a negative charge.
When the proton passes through the hole the plate becomes positivly charged to push the proton away from the plate.
This process repeats itself for every plate Is the most recent and most powerful particle accelerator.
It consists of round tube in which particles travel through.
The particles are propelled by magnets
Particles enter the accelerator after already being powered to several million volts.
Also to prevent the loss of speed, orbit magnets increase in strength when the particles increase in mass.
When the particles have reached the energy of 1GeV they are ejected towards a target.
Scientists then analyze the results of the collision. A SYNCHROTRON Cathode Ray Tube Is used mostly in televisions and computer monitors.
It is made up a anode, a cathode and the beam of electrons in between.
The part of the cathode ray tube that sends electrons is called a cathode and the part that receives the electrons in called the anode.
High voltage is applied to the cathode causing it to release a beam of electrons.
This beam strikes the phosphor screen and leaves a bright spot.
THIS IS HOW YOUR TV WORKS! Linear Accelerators Linear accelerators are the simplest and first type of particle accelerator ever made
They use electrodes to accelerate particles.
A source of ions is placed on one end of the accelerator, an electrical charge is used to send the particles down the accelerator
Then electrodes are used to accelerate the ions to higher and higher rates
Finally the particles are smashed into a target
The main advantage of linear accelerators is the cheapness and simplicity
The main disadvantage of this accelerator is the lack of energy and speed it can propel particles to. What's the point of all this? Types of Accelerators Cyclotron The cyclotron uses an electrical field to accelerate charged particles in the gap between 2 d-shaped magnetic fields
In this accelerator weak electrical fields can power a particle to high energies.
Also there isn't a problem of electrical overcharge that was found in earlier accelerators
The cyclotron was created in the 1930s be Earnest O. Lawrence. It was only 10cm in diameter. This accelerator uses RF voltage applied between 2 Dees to speed up particles. Particle Source The Blast Chamber Target Particles Electrodes The Basic Model Of An Accelerator Electrons: You have to heat metal to high temperatures
Protons: Created by ionizing hydrogen
Anti-particles: To get antiparticles, first have particles hit a target. This will cause pairs of particles and antiparticles will be to form. Magnetic fields can be used to separate them. To Get... What happens to a particle when it is acclerated? +
- Imagine a EM wave hitting a particle. The particles in front get less of a push while the particles in the back get a bigger push so the particles move together DETECTOR The Uses For Accelerators The semi-conductor industry uses particle accelerators to insert implant ion is silicon chips. Particle Accelerators What Are They? How Do They Work? Atoms Electrons And Protons Quarks Neutrionos Are machines used to speed up particles
They are many types of accelerators but all they all have something in common Particles get bigger as they gain electrical energy An atom is the smallest unit of matter that can be divided without the release of electrically charged particles.
This is crucial in an accelerator because the atom is broken to provide materials. Electrons have a negative charge while protons have a positive charge
Electrons are considered the basic unit of electricity
They are only 1/1840 the mass of protons
Protons and neutrons make up nearly every nucleus of every atom
They have the same amount of electrical charge as an electron Quarks and leptons make up everything in the galaxy
Everything around us is made from protons and neutrons, and quarks are what make up these things.
There are 6 types of quarks:Up/down quarks, charm/strange quarks, and top/bottom
Quarks have fractional electrical charges
They also have a property called color change
Quarks are found in groups called hadrons A neutrino is a subatomic particles produced by the decay of radioactive material
They contain no electrical charge
Unaffected by electrical charge or the strongest of the 4 forces
They come form the original birth of the universe.
Travel at the speed of light and are created by nuclear bombs, particle accelerators, deaths of stars, and supernovas.
Only affected by the weakest forces in nature
Can travel through the universe without interference. Matter Antimatter For every particle there is a corresponding anti-particle
They are affected the same way by gravity
EXAMPLE: Electron Antiparticles have the opposite charge than their corresponding particle When matter and antimatter meet they create pure energy EXAMPLE: Positron This is model of how linar accelerators accelerate particles After that video you should have a basic understanding of particle accelerators Unlike x-rays, particle accelerators are exact and don’t harm any cells outside of the targeted area. A more efficient way to destroy cancer cells is to bombard the tumor with accelerated cells. DNA research: synchrotron( a type of particle accelerator) light sources help scientists analyze how ribosome organelles translate genetic code into life. Clean water: a study shows that accelerators can be used to clean water.
Blasting the water with ions kills most of the bacteria in the water. A CRT or cathode ray tube takes electrons from a cathode, speeds them up, changes their direction by using electromagnets in a vacuum. Then the CRT smashes the particles into phosphor molecules on a screen. The collision results in a lighted spot or pixel on the screen. 90% of all the particle accelerators are used in commercial and industrial applications. Over a 100 people in the United States die from food-born illness every week. To fix this problem food industries use particle accelerators to kill harmful bacteria like E.coli, salmonella, and listeria. In the future it would be possible to generate electricity using particle accelerators.
This would be done by sending a proton into a block of uranium.
One proton will create 60,000 neutrons.
This will produce about 12,000GV of energy. And of course they are used to study subatomic particles Radio Frequency Cavities and Electric Fields These provide acceleration to a beam of particles.
The RF cavities are located at intervals around the beam pipe.
Each time a beam passes through a electrical field or cavity. Some of the energy in the radio wave is given to the particles.
So the particle rides the wave like a surfer. Vacuum Chamber This is the metal pipe inside which the beam travels.
The pipe is kept in a ultrahigh vacuum to reduce the amount of gas present. Because the ions in the accelerator can collide with the gas particles. Magnets Dipole magnets are used to bend the line of particles in a circular accelerator.
Quad pole magnets used to focus a beam of particles to get to drift closer together. Product 783 million people in the world don't have access to clean water Problems with building accelerators to purify water The countries that need help with water purification don't have a lot of money
Accelerators are extremely expensive
The US is already in dept and will not fund a multi-million dollar project in another country
Accelerators are extremely fragile and can't be shipped Studies show that accelerators can be used to clean water. Turns out blasting the water with ions kills most of the bacteria in the water. Small
Cheap
Easy to transport
Have a high product/energy ratio This means that if a particle accelerator is created purify water it would have to be: Solids in the water do not affect the purification process
The process requires no chemicals
And it is cheaper and smaller that convention methods The main continent where this product would be sent How The Water Wand Would Work In African Villages 1.The villagers will gather water from streams and rivers
2.Then they would come to a non-profit center that will be built near their villages
3. At the center they will fill their water into airthight water bottles
4. Then water bottles will be put into the Water Wands

The Result: Purified Water THE END
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