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Untitled Prezi

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Alexis Luu

on 8 May 2013

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Escape from Planet Soma The Planet Soma First Challenge Sodium Potassium Ion Channels Synthetic Toxin Works Cited Local life:Somanians
Ruler:Chief Oligodendrog
Atmosphere:Breathable
Climate:Desert-like planet
Status:Hostile
Known for:Hostile incursions and acts against galactic law using torture on neurological levels
Known Attacks: 40 in past decade
Known Survivors of War:10 How will the non-functional sodium channels affect the signaling capabilities of a neuron?


What type of information do nociceptive neurons carry?


Why would having this mutant gene be so terrible? Sodium and potassium are known as electrolytes, meaning that once released from an unbound
state, they flow as ions in a water environment
The Sodium-Potassium pump is the process of moving sodium and potassium ions across a cell
membrane

Mutations in genes for ion channels can cause epilepsy, migraines, deafness, episodic ataxia,
malignant hyperthermia, and generalized myotonia
In physiology, an action potential is a short lasting event where an electrical membrane potential of a cell rises and falls

The Sodium-Potassium Pump sends out positively charged sodium ions and positively charged potassium ions are pumped in.

When the flow of ions are unequal, it leads to a more positive charge on one side compared to the other What effect will the destruction of myelin have on the signaling capability of a neuron?


Explain why this occurs.


What will happen to you if you are forced to drink the alien “orange juice”?

"Animation: How the Sodium Potassium Pump Works." Animation: How the Sodium Potassium Pump Works. N.p., n.d. Web. 04 May 2013.

"Neuroscience For Kids." - Cells of the Nervous System. N.p., n.d. Web. 04 May 2013.

"Pain Principles (Section 2, Chapter 6) Neuroscience Online: An Electronic Textbook for the Neurosciences | Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy - The University of Texas Medical School at Houston." Pain Principles (Section 2, Chapter 6) Neuroscience Online: An Electronic Textbook for the Neurosciences | Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy - The University of Texas Medical School at Houston. N.p., n.d. Web. 04 May 2013.

Snyder, Solomon H. "Johns Hopkins University - Department of Neuroscience." Johns Hopkins University - Department of Neuroscience. N.p., n.d. Web. 04 May 2013.

"Batrachotoxin." Batrachotoxin. N.p., n.d. Web. 04 May 2013.
"Myelin." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 30 Apr. 2013. Web. 04 May 2013.
"Nociceptor." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 27 Apr. 2013. Web. 04 May 2013.
N.p., n.d. Web. 4 May 2013.
"Refractory Period (physiology)." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 23 Apr. 2013. Web. 04 May 2013.
"Sodium Channel." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 19 Apr. 2013. Web. 04 May 2013. The signal capabilities of the neurons in the central and peripheral nervous systems could be weakened or even lost

This occurs because myelin increases the speed by which impulses travel. The loss of myelin would sever the path of the impulses, or at least slow them.

If I were to ingest it, my motor skills would be lost or severely damaged. My motor neurons could be damaged and unable to be repaired. First, lets learn about Neurons. In Mr. Allaire's (Headmaster of Pigfarts) Biology videos, we learn that a neuron sends messages from the brain to different parts of the body carrying different types of information such as pain, euphoria etc. These messages are called action potentials. Neurons are very important because this is how your brain controls your body. It is so important that without it you would just be put to sleep because there is no point in having a living corpse that is inactive. Now a days, when people are brain dead, they become perfect organ donors because their organs still work, it's just their brain that doesn't. By Alexis Luu, Krysta Kobayashi and Wilson Frank
P.4 If sodium channels are non-functional, then the sodium is unable to enter and depolarize the neuron. This could affect the nociceptive neurons present.

Non-inceptive neurons carry information on the sensory centers of the brain, it can create and alter the pain perception a living being has.

This mutant gene would be able to torment the carrier. The gene could generate unimaginable pain or remove the sense of feeling. Nervous System How will the signaling of a neuron be affected if the voltage-gated sodium channels open at a
more negative membrane potential?

How will preventing the inactivation of sodium channels affect the signaling capability of a
neuron?

What nasty effects will this toxin have on motor pathways? Sodium Channels Sodium Channels Because the sodium channels open to a certain threshold, if they open at a more negative potential, this threshold is lowered, meaning it takes less to open the channels, creating an increased sensitivity of the neuron.

Rapid inactivation of sodium channels is crucial for the normal electrical activity of excitable cells, preventing its inactivation would make it nearly impossible to depolarize the neurons.

The effects of batrachotoxin are numbness in muscle fibers, creating arythmias and other symptoms including heart failure. This toxin causes these symptoms by interfering with the electrical signals the body transmits by means of active potentials. Excitable Neurons An excitable cell is one that can be stimulated to create an electrical current

Muscle fibers as well as nerve cells (neurons) are excitable

Nonsynaptic Plasticity is a modification of the excitability of the neuron that involves a modification in the ion channel function

Interacts with synaptic plasticity, but considered a different entity

Synaptic plasticity is the ability of the synapse, between two neurons, to change in strength in response to use or disuse Central nervous system is the part of the nervous system that integrates information


The central nervous system is the brain and spinal cord


Peripheral nervous system works with the central nervous center to create a fundamental role in behavior


Peripheral nervous system is the nerves and the ganglia outside the brain and spinal cord

Main purpose of the PNS is to connect the CNS to the limbs and organs When All Is Lost Works Cited "Batrachotoxin." Batrachotoxin. N.p., n.d. Web. 04 May 2013.

"Myelin." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 30 Apr. 2013. Web. 04 May 2013.

"Nociceptor." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 27 Apr. 2013. Web. 04 May 2013.
N.p., n.d. Web. 4 May 2013.

"Refractory Period (physiology)." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 23 Apr. 2013. Web. 04 May 2013.

"Sodium Channel." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 19 Apr. 2013. Web. 04 May 2013. Pathological conditions are anatomical or physiological conditions that are not classified as
diseases or syndromes

Acid sensing ion channels have been recently linked as a critical role in neuronal injury
associated with neurological disorders
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