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Transcript of Fluency Disorders
- Bruce Willis As you can see, fluency disorders can affect anyone, even a famous person, such as Bruce Willis. According to ASHA (1999): "Fluency is the aspect of speech production that refers to the continuity, smoothness, rate, and/or effort with which phonologic, lexical, morphologic, and/or syntactic language units are spoken (p 2)." Therefore, a fluency disorder is a speech disorder classified by deviations in continuity, smoothness, rhythm, and/or effort with which phonologic, lexical, morphologic, and/or syntactic language units are spoken (ASHA,1999). Types of Fluency Disorders Normal Developmental Disfluencies
Language Bases Disfluency
Cluttering Disfluency is a break in the continuity of producing language units of oral speech (ASHA,1999). Normal Developmental Disfluencies About half of nonstuttering children go through a period of normal developmental disfluences (ASHA, 1999).This condition occurs between the ages of one and six years. Usually every child goes through developmental disfluencies. Children get over this stage as their speech skills develop (Health & wellness, 2011). Stuttering Stuttering is classified by abnormally high frquency or duration of stoppages in the flow of speech. Unlike normal developmental disfluencies however, it has secondary behaviors. These behaviors include: eye blinks, head nods, jaw tremors, and total body gyrations (Health & wellness, 2011). Neurogenic Disfluency This kind of disfluency is caused from having an accident that causes brain problems, which is called induced disfluency. Neurogenic disfluency has the same characteristics as stuttering, including the secondary behaviors. However, the main problem isn't in the area of fluency, but in the ability to control muscles needed for speech production (Health & wellness, 2011). Psychogenic Disfluency The onset of this fluency disorder is attributed to an identifiable emotional crisis. It is grouped into three categories: emotionally based, manipulative based, and malingering. A person who suffers from psychogenic disfluency starts to stutter when a specific person is around (Health & wellness, 2011). Language Bases Disfluency Language problems cause this fluency disorder. It requires language based therapy rather than fluency based therapy (Health & wellness, 2011). Mixed Fluency Failures A blend of two or more problems in the factors of fluency/disfluency, which cause overlapping failures (Health & wellness, 2011). Cluttering Cluttering is the extreme of stuttering. It has to do with the timing and rhythm of speech, where a person speaks too fast that his/her speech can't be comprehended. Clutterers aren't aware they are cluttering, while stutterers are aware they are stuttering (Health & wellness, 2011). The cause of fluency disorders is unknown. According to ASHA (2011): "Recent studies suggest that genetics play a role in the disorder. It is thought that many, if not most, individuals who stutter inherit traits that put them at risk to develop stuttering." Treatments for Fluency Disorders Speech therapy and physical retraining exercises speech and vocal muscles to retrain them to correct speech. It is conducted by a speech and language therapist or speech pathologist, in weekly, individual sesssions (Stuttering, 2010). Breath training teaches breathing techniques that ease the flow of speech and decrease anxiety when speaking. It can be done individually or in groups (Stuttering, 2010). Psychological interventions like individual or group therapy can help with assertiveness skills, socialization, and other emotional and behavioral problems associated with fluency disorders (Stuttering, 2010). Assistive devices for the ear can help improve speech fluency (Stuttering, 2010). What can teachers do for students with fluency disorders in their classrooms? Be a Good Speech Model Reduce your rate of speech
Create silences in your interactions, such as pauses placed at appropriate places
Model normal nonfluencies such as interjections ("um" or "uh") or an occasional whole-word reptition, phrase repetition, or pause (LaBlance et el, 1994). Improve the Child's Self-Esteem Disregard moments of nonfluency
Show acceptance of what the child expresses rather than how it is said
Help student to feel in control of his or her speech by following the child's lead in conversations
Accept nonfluencies by maintaining eye contact and remain patient (LaBlance et al, 1994). Create a Good Speech Environment Establish conversational rules, for example don't let them interrupt eachother
Suggest that the child stop other activities while speaking
Prepare the child for upcoming events such as changes in the daily schedule (LaBlance et al, 1994). Impact of Fluency Disorders Upon Families Stuttering and other fluency disorders can cause social anxiety, withdrawal, and/or embarrassment. Children with fluency disorders will avoid social settings and have low self-esteem. Family members must provide emotional support in everyday life (Stuttering, 2010) . References American speech-language-hearing association (2011). Stuttering: causes and number. Retrieved from www.asha.org
American speech-language-hearing association. (1999). Terminology pertaining to fluency and fluency disorders: guidelines. Retrieved from www.asha.org/policy.
Health & wellness digest. (2009). Speech therapy an overview on fluency disorders Retrieved from http://www.healthwellnessdigest.com/speech-therapy-an-overview-on-fluency-disorders/
LaBlance, G. R., Steckol, K. F., & Smith, V. L. Stuttering: the role of the classroom teacher. TeachingnExceptional Children. (1994). Retrieved from http://www.mnsu.edu/comdis/kuster/InfoPWDS/lablance.html
Stuttering. (2010). Retrieved from http://www.butterflyeffects.com/reference/stuttering/
The stuttering foundation (2011). Look who’s talking. Retrieved from http://www.stutteringhelp.org/Default.aspx?tabid=769 Fluency disorders can effect anyone, there is no known cause. However, there are available treatments for any of the 6 types. These treatments are not ones that make the disorder disappear but they can help those who suffer to overcome and live life as normally as possible. One who has a fluency disorder will have troubles with self confindence. As teachers we will need to prepare our students to accept and show patience towards their peers with fluency disorders.