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Transcript of No Discrimination!
Arri Ye & Aron Philip
is not merely the absence
of tension: it is the presence of justice."
~ Martin Luther King, Jr.
(cc) photo by theaucitron on Flickr
(cc) photo by theaucitron on Flickr
“No one can make you feel inferior without your consent.” Eleanor Roosevelt
We hope that you’ve enjoyed this multi-media presentation and that it has enlightened your knowledge of racism, sexism, and ageism. Thank You!
This multi-media presentation will present to you about discrimination in three different areas: race, gender, and age. These three different types of discrimination can also be called as racism, sexism and ageism, respectively. Specifically, we will talk to you about the definition, one or two historical examples, one or two current examples and some preventative measures for each “ism”. Since ageism is more of a current issue, we will present to you a cultural model instead of an historical example. The cultural model will discuss about a country where ageism is almost non-existent. This is a very brief summary of what we will present to you.
45% of black children, compared to 16% of white children, live below the poverty line.
To start off, here are a few statistics for each “ism”:
41 to 44 hours of work per week by women are worth only 84.6% of what men working similar hours are worth. Only 78.3% of what men working more than 60 hours per week are earned by women working in the same time category.
One of the worst records on age discrimination in Europe is in the country of Britain. Nearly two out of five people claimed that they have been disrespected because of how old they are.
This term was coined in 1986 by Robert Neil Butler.
Suffrage is the civil right to vote. Unfortunately, sexism is involved in suffrage, because gender is sometimes used as a rubric for the right to vote.
But out of all the advertising, only 10% of it is aimed at people 55+. There are many examples where ads are directed at the 18-49 age group but are having primary consumers 50+.
Not all societies treat the elderly as a burden. The Japanese are a good example from the Eastern cultures that revere the elderly, in part, because of their presumed nearness in relation to honoured ancestors. Most older people are respected and honored because of their age.
Highlight the individual, collective and/or lifelong contributions to our society from them.
Examine the contents of media for racist, sexist and ageist stereotypes and react to them; for e.g., by writing a letter to or by emailing the editor, TV sponsor or movie producer.
Speak out against racism, sexism and ageism or any such behaviour.
Stat- A study in 2001 found that 59% of Canadian men with university degrees had incomes of over $32,367, compared with only 36% of women.
“the belief that all members of each race possess
characteristics, abilities, or qualities specific to
that race, especially so as to distinguish it as
inferior or superior to another race or races.”
~The Oxford English Dictionary
#1 93% of canadians aged 15 and over ( or 20.4 million) said they had never, or rarely experienced dicrimination or unfair treatment because of ethno-cultural characteristics.
"The best way to find yourslef is to lose yourself in the service of others." ~Mahatma Gandhi
"It isn't enough to talk about peace. One must belive in it. And it isn't enough to believe in it. One must work at it." ~Eleanor Roosevelt
"Injustice anywhere is a threat to justice everywhere" ~Martin Luther King, Jr.
Stat- Black unemployment rates have been at least double thise experienced by whites.
“Let us all hope that the dark clouds of racial prejudice will soon pass away, and that in some not too distant tomorrow the radiant stars of love and brotherhood will shine over our great nation with all their scintillating beauty.” Martin Luther King Jr. (American Civil-Rights Leader and Baptist Minister)
Racism in History
Racism is a form of discrimination based on one’s cultural beliefs about a particular race. It is also formed based on one’s judgemental belief system. Various, illegal and harmful activities such as extremism, hatred, xenophobia, exploitation, separatism, racial supremacy, mass murder (genocide), vigilantism (hate crimes, terrorism), etc. are consociated with racism.
" We cannot hope to build a better world without improving the individuals. To that end each of us must work for his own improvement, and at the same time share a general responsibility for all humanity, our particular duty being to aid those to whom we think we can be most useful." ~ Marie Curie
The Holocaust or the Nazi Germany’s plan and execution of the systematic genocide of the European Jews during World War 2, especially in 1942, is an extremely sad, depressing and horrifying example of racism. It was the genocide of around six million European Jews, unfortunately. In brief, it was “a programme of systematic state-sponsored murder by Nazi Germany,” states Wikipedia.
The “Final Solution” was the deadliest phase of the Holocaust. The chief architect of this plan was Heinrich Himmler, and the German Nazi leader, Adolf Hitler, called it as “the final solution of the Jewish question”. Mass killings of about one million Jews had already occurred even before these plans were fully implemented in 1942. But the extermination camps were built only with the decision to eliminate the entire Jewish population.
There used to be around 9 million Jews living in Europe before the Holocaust. But approximately, two-thirds of that population have been killed by the Holocaust. Specifically, over one million Jewish children, and approximately 2 million Jewish women and 3 million Jewish men have perished.
Problems of racism in Italy continue. In 2010, January, there was “a wave of violence against African farm workers” in southern Italy that has injured some 70 people. Italian authorities have evacuated some 320 African migrants, who mostly work as fruit-pickers in Calabria, by bus to an emergency centre. Extra police were brought in after two days of violent protests, during which 37 people were injured and cars were set on fire.
Racism in Current Times
It all started when a group of local youths shot two migrants with pellet guns. Many of these African migrants (mainly from Ghana and Nigeria) live in very harsh conditions - living in abandoned factories and buildings with no running water or electricity.
Thanks to all who helped too!
Arri Ye and Aron Philip
" You cannot live a perfect day without doing something for someone who will never be able to repay you." ~John Wooden
Sexism in History
Sexism in current times
" When I despair, I remember that all through history, the ways of truth and love have always won. There have been tyrants, and murderers, and for a time they can seem invincible, but in the end they always fall. Think of it - always."
~ Mahatma Gandhi
a form of discrimination based on one’s gender. Discrimination against women is more often, in the context of patriarchy, than discrimination against men. Patriarchy is a term used for a society or system in which men have all or most of the influence. Sexism involves the application of traditional gender stereotypes. It also involves hatred of or prejudice towards a gender as a whole.
Occupational sexism refers to sexism that occurs in a place of employment or in certain jobs. (Sexism in the workplace)
Glass ceiling, is a result of sexism, refers to an invisible and unbreakable barrier that keeps women or minority groups from having a workplace advancement, regardless of their achievements and qualifications.
The “wage gap” refers to the difference in average earnings between men and women.
Racialism can be used as a synonym of racism.
Preventative Measures/Strategies, specifically for Racism
Promote positive race relations.
In the schools, invite powerful speakers who can discuss about racism and human rights.
Preventative Measures/Strategies, specifically for Sexism
Public education can indeed be a great social equaliser when considering about sexism in employment and wage gap.
When there are more women enrolled in higher education and with a university degree, they can be able to reduce the wage gap.
Women’s Media Center
Preventative Measures/Strategies, specifically for Ageism
Have an open ear to seniors who have experienced ageism.
Be more connected to the elders.
Preventative Measures/Strategies that are common for all the “ISMS”
Starting from early childhood, societal attitudes and stereotypes about racism, sexism and ageism must be taught and addressed.
Educate the young generation more about these “ISMS” and how they intersect with each other. One way, for e.g., can be through picture books.
Teach them to consider all races, genders, and ages equally.
The more educated we are about these “ISMS” and what to expect; the more capable we’ll be in evaluating and resisting many of the stereotypes.
Try learning from others who have been greatly affected from these “ISMS”, how it has affected them and their lives.
Identify the stereotypes that discriminate others.
Start killing such myths and wrong beliefs about people because of their race, gender or age.
Do not expect negative characteristics from a person just because they’ve been labelled as a certain race, gender or age.
Make such issues more aware in the community through different Medias.
Instead of keeping them hidden, discuss them openly.
Be part of a positive solution by supporting organizations that help deal with issues of the “ISMS” and human rights in the community. (one voice, one team; maybe)
Use the power and your ability to communicate racism, sexism and ageism wisely.
Make sure that our language does not perpetuate racism, sexism or ageism.
Create clear policy statements against all forms of racial discrimination.
To prevent or reduce the way we as a society perform or think about discrimination towards each other, we should:
-Get past differences of each other and learn to get along together while shattering stereotypes.
-We can recognize these 'isms' as problems and apply steps to solve them.
-We can set positive examples of dealing with these 'isms', so others can hopefully do the same .
"If a free society cannot help the many who are poor, it cannot save the few who are rich. ~John F. Kennedy
"In every community, there is work to be done. In every nation, there are wounds to heal. In every heart, there is the power to do it." ~Marianne Williamson
"The best preparation for good work tomorrow is to do good work today." ~ Elbert Hubbard
"How wonderful it is that we can start doing good deeds at this very moment." Anne Frank
Stat- In the same job, women in the United States earn an average of 23.5% less than men.
“The battle for the individual rights of women is one of long standing and none of us should countenance anything which undermines it.” Eleanor Roosevelt
Eleanor Roosevelt is the wife of Franklin D. Roosevelt, the 32nd US president. As an advocate for civil rights, and an international author, speaker, politician and activist, Roosevelt strived to enhance the status of working women. She founded the UN Association of the United States in 1943. Roosevelt also chaired the committee of John F. Kennedy administration which helped start second-wave feminism, the Presidential Commission on the Status of Women.
Until the 20th century, the U.S. and English law subscribed to the system of couverture. The system of couverture is where “by marriage, the husband and wife are one person in law; that is, the very being or legal existence of the women is suspended during the marriage,” states Wikipedia. Women in the U.S. weren’t legally defined as persons until 1875.
And in 1920, the passage of the Nineteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution became successful, which goes like this: “The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex.”
During the 19th century, the suffrage of women in the U.S. was earned gradually at state and local levels.
Women’s participation in post-secondary education grew significantly higher in the 1970’s.
Women have been achieving at least half of the undergraduate degrees awarded in Canada since 1980.
Even because of the initial breakthrough into important fields such as medicine and law, many well-paid professions are still occupied in majority by men. Therefore, most of the low-income jobs and occupations are still dominated largely by women or are still “feminised”.
Although estimates of wage gap differ by source and how you find them, the latest information from Statistics Canada shows that women earn 80 cents for every dollar earned by men.
Here are a few factors contributing to the “wage gap”.
Work experience and type of occupation (24%)
Holding the workplace characteristics constant (18%)
The majority of women in low-wage industries (20%)
All of these characteristics of the individual worker, workplace or occupation explain, in total, 62% of the wage gap. This leaves 38% of the wage gap “unexplained”. This part of the wage gap is often inferred as sexism in the workplace. You can also infer that there are unfair practices in the “explained” factors already. The domination of women in low-wage industries has grown to a large extent because work usually done by women is not valued, and consequently most often less paid or rewarded.
Sexism is also involved in the promotion process. This can lead to fewer women in experienced and managerial positions. The Statistics Canada Survey of Labour Income Dynamics data from 1998 shows that women represent only 20% of professionals employed in the sciences, engineering and mathematics. The higher the education you have, the higher the incomes you receive for both men and women, but men benefit far more from their education. Gender separation by field of study still continues persistently because of sexism.
http://www.cnpea.ca/ageism.pdf (Prevention of Ageism)
http://news.nationalpost.com/2011/12/04/manitoba-contemplates-hate-crime-charge-for-youth-who-allegedly-threw-racial-slurs-at-jewish-classmate-lit-her-hair-on-fire/ (current example of racism)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sexism(historical example of sexism and definition)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glass_ceiling (current example of sexism)
http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/suffragettes.htm (historical example of sexism)
http://www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/tvandradio/bbc/8252309/Miriam-OReilly-set-to-return-to-BBC-after-winning-tribunal-case.html (current example of ageism)
http://www.alfa.org/alfa/Ageism.asp (definition video)
http://www.carp.ca/ (Prevention of Ageism)
http://www.cfs-fcee.ca/html/english/research/factsheets/Factsheets-EqualMinds.pdf (current example of sexism)
Language jot-notes from Mrs.Ineson about the definitions of the 3 Ism’s
School worksheet of Rosa Parks (historical example of racism)
http://www.globalissues.org/article/165/racism#RacisminEurope (current example of racism)
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/8450083.stm (current example of racism)
http://books.google.ca/books?id=1Zb3-2UxHyUC&pg=PT508&lpg=PT508&dq=countries+where++the+elderly+are+respected&source=bl&ots=jXzDQY0gqr&sig=FFmB-acDSMXPWSd0lAHF6NXpAns&hl=en&sa=X&ei=gLFWT6mwI4Xu0gHMwtDsAw&sqi=2&ved=0CDUQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=countries%20where%20%20the%20elderly%20are%20respected&f=false (a cultural model of Agiesm) this is from an online book
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Final_Solution (a historical example of racism)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Holocaust (a historical example of racism)
http://www.cbc.ca/ageofpersuasion/episode/season-5/2011/05/28/season-five-ageism-in-advertising-1/ (a current example of ageism)
http://www.statcan.gc.ca/daily-quotidien/030929/dq030929a-eng.htm -statistic 1
http://www.womensmedia.com/new/Lips-Hilary-gender-wage-gap.shtml statistic for sexism
"Two Nations" by Andrew Hacker (book) or http://www-rohan.sdsu.edu/~rgibson/RACESTAT.htm statistic for racism
http://www.guardian.co.uk/society/2011/oct/30/ageism-european-social-survey statistic for ageism
Only 8.9% of men aged 65 and over and 10.4% women aged 60 and over were still in employment, in spring 2005.
Ageism in advertising is a very good example that is occurring currently and has been occurring from around the 1980’s. The advertising industry has institutionalized the youth strategy (18-49 year old viewers). They say that you can win the younger consumers while they were “tender” because they are more influential and because of the fact that young people are more focused on quantity, buying with impatience. The advertising industry thinks that young people are more likely to develop lifelong loyalties to certain brands.
But studies have shown that 78% of people between 56 and 90 are “likely” or “very likely” to try new products.
More than 80% of the wealth in North American financial institutions is possessed by people over 50. They spend an estimated amount of 2 trillion dollars per year on products and services.
You may ask why there is such ageism in advertising. There are 3 possible reasons:
3.Because of the youth strategy in advertising, a lot of media literates believe that the 55+ consumers will be reached with the “spill” of the advertising aimed at youth. But even the word “spill” shows ageist behaviour towards the elderly.
Ageism in current times
In conclusion, why does each of the “ISMS” still exist and/or persist in our culture today? There are many reasons why, but here are a few general reasons.
Not everybody in this world can be called as a “good” human being, in relation to the “ISMS”. We cannot really control their behaviours and attitudes.
Many people are still not aware of such issues in the society, in order for them to take preventative measures. Many people might not be familiar with such concepts.
Many people in our culture might’ve been born and brought up in a way to have racist, sexist or ageist behaviours and attitudes.
They might’ve been mislead by the different stereotypes about different people.
Media is also another factor that’s part of this reason.
Even though these “ISMS” still exist and/or persist in our culture today, we, human beings who care for each other, can and must still take preventative measures for each of these ”ISMS” from occurring.
1. Since the average age of ad agency is around 30, it wouldn’t be surprising that the companies are being advised and persuaded to target the young by the ad agency.
2.The lack of attention to the 55+ from marketing is cultural. If the community feels that ignoring older people is not a big deal, at large, and if advertising goes with the flow, why should marketers feel any different?
...a form of discrimination based on one’s age.
Ageism can also be defined as “a set of beliefs, attitudes, norms and/or values that are used to justify age-based prejudice, discrimination and subordination. Ageism usually refers to adults or people 55+ but it can also refer to adolescents and children, for e.g., ignoring their ideas because they’re too young.
The baby boomers are a group of people usually born between the times of World War 2 to 1961.
A Cultural Model of Ageism
“Ageism is as odious as racism and sexism.”
Claude Denson Pepper was an American politician of the Democratic Party and a spokesman for the elderly.
Japan has the most rapid growing percentage of the elderly of any country in the world. It has the longest overall life expectancy at birth of any country in the world: 83.5 years for people born in the period 2010 - 2015.
-We can learn and educate about these topics, as a society, and raise awareness and knowledge about the 'isms'.
-We can take examples from past events in history to learn more about these things, and learn from mistakes.
-We can speak out against what we think or see as discrimination.
Ex. The Government of Canada had a public announcement about the abuse of seniors, prompting viewers to learn more. A positive example for preventing ageism.
There used to be many strict traditions and customs giving respect to the elderly. For e.g.;
Japanese elders are considered the heads of the families.
The oldest male in the family is usually given the highest seat of honor at the table, while the oldest female is given the second highest.
It is the same order of respect followed in serving food.
It is the same order of respect followed in bathing.
It is the same order of respect followed in going through doorways.
The elders walk in front of the younger on the street.
There is a special national holiday called Respect for Aged Day.
Special seats are reserved for the aged.
and so on...