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1960s & 1970s: Events and Conficts

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tanya randhawa

on 19 December 2014

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Transcript of 1960s & 1970s: Events and Conficts

1960s & 1970s: Events and Conflicts
Germany after WWII
Germany was divided into 4 zones.
The 4 main Allied powers each controlled one section (the United States, Great Britain, France, and the Soviet Union)
Agreed at the Potsdam Conference
Tensions between the Soviets with the other 3 Allied powers.
1949 the 3 Allied powers combine their sections of Germany and form West Germany.
Soviet Union followed by forming East Germany
The capital, Berlin, was also divided into West and East Berlin
West Germany set up a Capitalist society - experienced an "economic miracle" and citizens had a lot of freedom.
East Germany was a Communist society - economy wasn't the best and freedom was restricted.
Many people wanted to leave East Germany and move out to the West.
By early 60s the East was losing its labor force and its population.
Several attempts to take over West Germany, by East Germany.
The Rise of the Berlin Wall
Berlin Wall 1961-1989
A barrier that divided Berlin, Germany from August 13, 1961- November 9, 1989.
Symbolic boundary between democracy and communism.
East Germany controlled by the Soviet Union (the German Democratic Public)
West Germany controlled by the Unites States, France, and Great Britain (the Federal Republic of Germany)
Nuclear Parity:

equal nuclear capabilities
opposing forces possess equal nuclear offensive and defensive systems
helped to prevent the two alliances from going to war
On the night of August 12-13, 1961 East Germany decided to build a wall.
Desperate to keep their East German citizens from moving to West Germany.
People woke up the next morning shocked and unable to meet their families or get to their jobs on either side of Germany.
Wall stretched over a 100 miles
Went through 4 major transformations:
1) Barbed wire fence with concrete posts.
2)Replaced with concrete blocks, topped with barbed wire.
3)Consisted of a concrete wall, supported with steel girders.
4)Consisted of concrete slabs reaching nearly 12-ft high and 4-ft wide.
Aftermath of the Wall
Many tried to escape
East German guards shot anyone near the eastern side of the wall
Approximately 5,000 people from the east made it across the wall
around 200 died while attempting to escape.
Neither side was allowed to enter the other
But over the years some exceptions were made
a period of relaxation in the early 1970's
a warming of relations between the Soviet Union and the United States
horrors of Vietnam shocked people, growing fear of a nuclear holocaust, and the super powers (the U.S., and the Soviet Union) achieved nuclear parity
M.A.D (Mutually Assured Destruction) :
a belief of military strategy and national security policy in which weapons of mass destruction by two or more opposing sides would cause a complete destruction
only existed, both sides had access to the same weapons
concept = kept both sides from going to war
Accomplishments of Détente:
objective = prevent the spread of nuclear weapons and weapons technology to promote cooperation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy
non-proliferation, disarmament, and peaceful uses
only international treaty that prohibits the proliferation of nuclear weapons
1. Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty:
SALT I: Soviet Union and United States = limit the number of certain missiles
SALT II: the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan = US refused to sign
2. Strategic Arms Limitations Talks (S.A.L.T.)
the first act of the conference on security
to accept the division of Germany and the existing boundaries in Europe
to respect human rights
make possible easier movement of people across borders
nonbinding, do not have treaty status
3. Helsinki Accords:
Cuban Missile Crisis
The October Crisis
A 13 day confrontation in October 1962
Over the installation of nuclear Soviet missiles on Cuba
Nikita Khrushchev (Soviet leader)
Closest Cold War that escalated into a full scale nuclear war
Missiles allowed the Soviet Union to target most of the continental US
Fall of the Berlin Wall
Vietnam War 1954-1975
Student Workbook (Socials 11)
Counterpoints Textbook (Socials 11)
Went from July 21, 1954-April 30, 1975
War between North and South Vietnam (Vietnam divided).
Massive American involvement
Communist VS Anti-Communist
China ruled ancient Vietnam
France took control in 1800's
In WWII, France surrendered to the NAZIS, Japan took control
Japan surrendered, France returned
The division
The Geneva Accords of 1954 divided Vietnam into North and South
North Vietnam under the control of Ho Chi Minh and his communist forces
South Vietnam under a french-backed emperor
The US involvement
Fear of communism = US supported south Vietnam
Wanted to keep their involvement minimum
After the north forces attacked US navy ships in the Gulf of Tonkin, US began sending troops
Nearly 400,000 US troops in Vietnam by 1966
A total number of 2,594,000 US soldiers served in Vietnam
People in the US were not happy
Important Events
In 1968 the north Vietnamese army launched the Tet Offensive
Both sides suffered heavy casualties
In retaliation the US troops along with the South Vietnamese soldiers attack the village of My Lai in South Vietnam in 1968.
Known as the My Lai Massacre
President Richard Nixon orders the US and South Vietnamese troops to invade border areas in Cambodia in 1970.
A year later he orders his troops to invade Laos to stop the North Vietnamese supply routes.
End of the Vietnam War
A lot of anti-war protest in the US
A cease-fire is arranged
Last American ground troops leave in 1973
North and South Vietnam begin fighting again
In 1975 South Vietnam surrenders to North Vietnam.
Bomarc Missiles
First long range anti-aircraft missile
Capable of carrying nuclear warheads
Boeing produced this missile
Name came from "The Michigan Aerospace Research center ( MARC)
In 1951, the Bomarc then became the F-99
Soviets Invade Afghanistan
December 1979-February 1989
A part of the Cold War
War between
December 1979- February 1989
Part of the Cold War
Soviet Union placed 350 missiles in Eastern Europe (Russia)

History of Vietnam:
December 1979- February 1989
Soviet Union placed 350 missiles in Eastern Europe (Russia)
Soviets put a new dictator Babrak Karmal as the new president of Afghanistan
With the Soviet invasion, they attempted to take control of the Persian Gulf
The Wall
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