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Human Anatomy 2013

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Mary Sackmann

on 21 May 2015

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Transcript of Human Anatomy 2013

The Human Body
The Language of Human Anatomy
Sagittal Section
Left and Right
Transverse Section
Superior and Inferior
Frontal Section
Anterior (front) and Posterior (back)
Body Cavities
Cranial/Vertebral cavity
Contains the skull, brain, and spinal cord

Ventral Cavity
Located near the anterior surface and is separated by the diaphragm

Thoracic
Contains lungs and heart

Abdominopelvic
Abdominal organs and pelvic organs
Skin-The Integumentary System
The largest organ in the body
Includes:
Skin
Hair
Nails
Glands

Functions

Protection
Body Temperature Regulation
Excretion
Information Gathering
Vitamin D Production
Outer layer
Dead cells
Living cells-rapidly dividing
Melanocytes-produce dark brown pigment called melanin
Middle Layer
Contains blood vessels, glands, nerves, muscles
Made of protein, keratin
Protection from UV light, debris,
Nails
Made of keratin
Grow an average rate of 3 mm/month
Finger nails grow 3X faster than toe nails
Skin Problems
Acne
Hives
Skin Cancer
Dead skin cells form plugs in hair follicles
Bacteria get trapped
Leads in infection & inflammation
85% of people experience acne
Allergic reactions to food or medicines
Blood vessels widen and fluid ooze into tissues
Over 60,000 ppl are diagnosed with melanoma in U.S.
8000 ppl die from it
The Skeletal System
Function
Support the body
Protects internal organs
Assists in movement
Stores minerals
Site of blood cell formation
Structure of Bones
Living cells
Protein fibers
Deposits of calcium salts
Tough layer
Haversian canals
Strong
Stores fats
Produce red blood cells
Bone Remodeling, Repair
& Problems
Remodel and strengthen based on exercise and stress
Osteoporosis
Bones break down faster than being rebuilt
Exercise and calcium consumption
One or more bones meet
Joints are covered in cartilage
Ligaments
Problems
ACL
Found in the center of knee
Prevents tibia from shifting too far forward
Excessive strain
Swelling, pain, heat and redness
Osteoarthritis
Cartilage breaks down
Bones
compact bone: hard outer part
bone marrow: spongy inner part
red blood cells are made in marrow
cartilage: softer than bone
makes ears, nose
cushions joints like knee
embryo's skeleton is all cartilage
growth plate: contains dividing cartilage cells that increase size of bone
Joints
ball and socket: shoulder and hip
hinge: knee and elbow
pivot: forearm and neck
saddle: thumb
bones are held together at joints by ligaments
Muscular System
Functions
Skeletal muscles: major muscles of arms, legs, etc. move the body
Smooth muscles: muscles that make up tubes in your body help move things along
examples: intestines, blood vessels
Cardiac muscle: makes up your heart, causing it to pump blood.
Muscle Contraction
Muscle fibers are made of myofibrils which are made of filaments of actin and myosin
During contraction, myosin forms cross-bridges with actin pulling the actin filaments together.
Movement
Muscles are attached to bones by tendons.
Muscles work in opposition. Biceps bend arm and triceps straighten arm. When a muscle contracts, the opposing muscle must relax.
Fast twitch fibers have few mitochondria and tire quickly. Slow twitch fibers have many mitochondria and have more endurance.
Problems
Loss of muscle tone
Loss of flexibility
Muscle pulls and strains
Tendonitis and torn tendons
Cramps
Muscular dystrophy
Muscular System
Deltoid
Trapezius
Triceps
Masseter
Gastrocnemius
Hamstring
Gluteus
Biceps
Pectoralis Major
Rectus abdominis
muscle on upper back and neck that bends the head
backward, holds head up, and turns head
Located in the uppper shoulder

lifts arms up and away from the body

Chest muscle that
brings arms across
chest

abdominal muscle
that flexes body
cheek muscle that is responible for chewing
a pair of muscles on the front of the arm

bends the arm at the elbow
3 muscles on the back of the arm
(hence the name..."tri"

straightens the arm at the elbow
back of leg (calf muscle)
and located behind the knee

Elevates the heel
butt muscle that extends the leg
backward at the hip
Located in your thigh (back)

The hamstrings play a crucial role in many daily activities, such as, walking, running, jumping, and controlling some movement in the trunk
Quadricep
Located in the thigh (front)

The quadriceps extend the leg at the knee. This occurs during activities such as running, jumping, kicking and walking
AB Pyramid for Skeletal System
Skin
Acne
Hair
Hives
Skin Cancer
Joints
Nails
Bones
Skull
Radius
Femur
Rib
Vertebra
Clavicle
Humerus
Phalanges
Ulna
Metacarpals
Hip
Tibia
Fibula
Metatarsals
Cartilage
Osteoporosis
spinal cord
Respiratory System
Lungs
Larynx
Trachea
Diaphragm
Muscle that lies between the
thoracic and abdominal
cavities

Contraction causes the
lungs to expand and bring in
air
Thick, cartilage structure at
the top of the trachea

Called the voice box since
vocal cords are located here
Digestive System
Nervous System
Functions
Central Nervous System (CNS):
brain and spinal cord
processes information and creates a response

Peripheral Nervous System (PNS):
nerves and supporting cells
collects information about the environment
Neurons
dendrites receive messages
axon sends messages
myelin sheath: the axon is wrapped in myelin with gaps (nodes)
the message jumps from node to node = faster
Impulse
threshold: the minimum level of a stimulus needed to cause an impulse
synapse: the gap between neurons
neurotransmitter: chemicals that carry an impulse across the synapse
an impulse starts when a neuron is stimulated by another neuron or the environment and moves through neurons like electricity
Problems
seizures
Alzheimers
mental illness
drug use and addiction
Brain and Senses
Frontal Lobe: thinking and processing
Parietal Lobe:
reading and speech
Occipital Lobe:
vision
Temporal Lobe:
hearing and smelling
touch: receptors in skin
vision: eyes are very close to brain
hearing: two ears help us determine where a sound is coming from
smelling
taste
Circulatory System
Functions
transports oxygen, nutrients, and other substances throughout the body
removes wastes, such as carbon dioxide
Structures
heart: main organ that pumps blood
an electrical pulse cause it to beat
atria contract first, ventricles contract second
Blood
Problems
Digestive System
Functions
Converts food into useable energy for the cells
Four Phases
Ingestion
Digestion
Absorption
Elimination
Enzymes
Problems
Peristalsis
The Mouth
Teeth
Protected my mineralized enamel
Mechanical Digestion

Saliva
Moisten food
Chemical Digestion: Amylase
Triggered by scent
Speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction
Unused
Muscles in the walls in the esophagus contract in waves
Each wave pushes chewed food in front of it
Esophagus
Tube that food passes from mouth to stomach
Epiglottis
Closes to protect any food or water from entering into the trachea and lungs
Stomach
Mechanical and Chemical Digestion

Cardiac- “near the heart”

Cardiac Sphincter: a round muscle that separates the esophagus and the stomach

Pyloric sphincter: opening into small intestine
Small Intestine
21 foot-long tube with little hair-like projections (villi) that increase the surface area

Enzymes break food down, then get absorbed

Most digestion occurs here
There are 3 divisions of the
small intestine
Duodenum
Jejunum
Ileum
Pancreas
Regulate blood sugar levels
Produces enzymes & insulin
Neutralizes chyme
Liver
Located in upper right abdomen

Produces and secretes bile (digest fat)

Filters blood, breaking down toxic substances and storing excess sugars.

More than 200 functions
Gall Bladder
Small sac attached to the underside of the liver.

Stores and concentrates the bile, releasing it into the small intestine as needed.
Large Intestine
Most water is adsorbed here
Heartburn
Appendicitis
Lactose Intolerance
Ulcers
Diarrhea & Constipation
Gallstones
Excretory System
Function
Excretes metabolic wastes from the body
Skin
Water, salts and small amount of urea
Lungs
Carbon dioxide and waste products from cellular respiration
Kidneys
Urinary Bladder
Stretchy, muscular organ that stores urine until it is released
Urethra
Provides a passageway for release of urine
Serves as a passage way for semen in males
Located in the lower back wall of the abdominal
cavity: one behind the stomach and one behind liver

Filter blood, removing wastes (maintaining nitrogenous compounds) and creating urine.

Blood enters each kidney through a renal artery
and leaves through a renal vein

Artery=blood AWAY from heart so into organs
Vein=blood into the heart so comes from organs
Tube that connects a kidney to the bladder
Carries the formed urine into the bladder
Ureter
Problems
Urine Testing
Kidney Disorders
Kidney Stones
Kidney Damage
Kidney Failure
Add proximal
Distal
Lateral
Dorsal

Respiratory System
Functions
How do we breathe?
diaphragm and intercostal muscles contract increasing volume
as volume goes up, pressure goes down
air moves from high pressure (outside body) to low pressure
to exhale, everything is reversed
Gas Exchange
Problems
take in oxygen and release carbon dioxide
gasses are exchanged by diffusion as blood passes by aveoli
higher concentration of oxygen in lungs = diffuses into blood
higher concentration of carbon dioxide in blood = diffuses into lungs
asthma
cold/allergies
pneumonia
collapsed lung
emphysema
mucous linings warm/moisten air and filter out bad stuff
Immune System
Nose
Pharynx
AKA: Throat
Passage way for both food and air
Windpipe
Tube of cartilage that separates into bronchi
Lined with cilia to trap particles
Each bronchus leads to a lung
Organ that facilitates the exchange of gases
Alveoli-tiny air sacs
Multiple lobes
1. Right Atrium
2. Right Ventricle
3. Lungs
4. Left Atrium
5. Left Ventricle
red blood cells (erythrocytes): carry oxygen
hemoglobin
white blood cells (leukocytes): immune system
platelets (thrombocytes): makes blood clot
plasma: liquid portion of blood, contains antibodies
arteries: take blood away from heart
veins: return blood to heart
capillaries: tiny vessels that allow diffusion
pericardium: sac that surrounds the heart which secretes fluid
Flow of blood
Atherosclerosis
Stroke
High blood pressure
High Cholesterol
meninges
cover the brain and spinal cord
medulla oblongata
Connects the brain with the spinal cord

Helps to regulate vital functions like breathing and heart rate
deep groove that separates the right & left halves
longitudinal fissure
vertebrae
Reproductive System
Males
Females
Problems
ovaries release about 400 eggs in a lifetime
travel through fallopian tubes to uterus
if not fertilized, egg is shed along with uterine lining
only one sperm can fertilize an egg -> zygote
a zygote can divide into 2 -> identical twins
if two eggs are released and fertilized -> fraternal twins
infertility
ovarian and cervical cancer
testicular cancer
sexually transmitted infections
sperm is made in testes
other parts of semen made in various parts
semen is released through urethra of penis (same as urine but not at the same time)
Endocrine System
Male Organs
Testes
Produces and stores sperm
Produces hormones
Penis

Male organ used to transfer sperm to the outside of the body
Scrotum
External sac of skin that surrounds the testes
Regulates the temperature
Epididymis

Long, coiled tube closely attached to each testis

Sperm mature here after leaving the testis
Female Organs
Ovary
produce and store eggs (ova) and
produce hormones
Vagina
Muscular tube that connects the uterus to
the outside of the body
Fallopian Tubes
A narrow passageway near the ovaries that leads to the
uterus

Openings lie near the ovaries; when an egg is released,
it is swept up into the tube and carried to the uterus
Uterus
Hollow, muscular organ that sits behind the bladder

When an egg is fertilized, it
will develop in the uterus
Testosterone
Estrogen
How Diseases Spread
Coughing & Physical Contact
Exchange of Body Fluids
Contaminated Water or Food
Non-Specific Defenses
First Line
Physical barrier: skin
Second Line
Inflammatory Response: red & painful. Release of histamines to increase blood flow
Interferons: Cell that interfere with viral growth
Fever: Slows growth of pathogens
Specific Defenses
"Self" vs "other"
Fights of others & remembers invaders for future
T and B cells
Hormones
Chemical messages
Glands
Produce & release hormones
Full transcript