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Elements & Principles of Three-Dimensional Design
Transcript of Elements & Principles of Three-Dimensional Design
3D Design Form Refers to three-dimensionality itself. For example, a circle, a square, and a triangle are two-dimensional shapes, while a sphere, a cube, and a pyramid are three-dimensional forms. Dynamic Forms Static Forms TYPES OF FORM Kinetic Forms Organic Geometric Mechanical An effective three-dimensional composition balances positive forms with negative space. Degrees of Dimensionality RELIEF: the artists uses a flat backing (such as a wall or ceiling) as a base for three-dimensional forms. THREE QUARTER WORK: more three-dimensional than relief, one can examine the front as well as two sides. FREESTANDING WORK: designed to be seen from all sides. ENVIRONMENTAL WORK: presents a space that can physically be entered. Installations (which are presented indoors) and Earthworks (which are presented outdoors). Color Light Texture Space Volume & Mass Plane Line In three-dimensional design, line can be created through the following: A series of adjacent points.
A connection between points.
A point in motion. LINE QUALITY orientation: horizontal, vertical, or diagonal. Based on our experience in the natural world, we tend to associate horizontal lines with stability and diagonal lines with movement. Vertical lines tend to accentuate height and can make an object appear more formidable or imposing. ACTUAL LINES: can connect,
define, or divide a design. IMPLIED LINES: created through mental
rather than physical connections. Repeated
diagonals in "Rape of the Sabine Women" creates
a strong visual imapact. A plane is a three-dimensional form that has length and width, but minimal thickness. Depending on the material used, planes can be transparent or opaque, rigid or flexible, flat or curved. Intersecting planes can create large-scale structures that are remarkably strong. With outdoor sculptures, such as Alexander Calder's "La Grande Vitesse," structural integrity is especially important. This is located in Grand Rapids, MI and is 43 feet tall. In 3-D design, volume refers to an enclosed area of three-dimensional space. Cubes, cylinders, cones, and spheres are among the most prevalent volumes found in both nature and architecture. Artist Kendall Buster has created entire exhibitions using large-scale, translucent geometric volumes. A mass is a solid 3-D form. A massive object can be as dense and heavy as a bar of gold or as light and porous as a sponge. Massive sculptures are often carved from a solid block of plaster, clay, or stone or cast using bronze, glass, or other materials. Solid and imposing, they tend to dominate the environment in which they are placed. Artist, Henry Moore took advantage of the power of mass when he created "Locking Piece." The PRIMARY CONTOURS or outer edges are complemented by the SECONDARY CONTOURS created by internal edges. In three-dimensional design, space is the area within or around the form. A successful 3-D composition will have active dialogue between a form (positive space) and its surroundings (negative space). Negative space is especially noticable in designs that are dominated by positive form. Karen Karnes, "Vessel," 1987 Entering Space Some sculptres are designed to be entered physically.
Anish Kapoor's "Cloud Gate," 2006 Texture refers to the visual or tactile quality of a form. Variations in the surface of a form may be subtle or pronounced. In "Blackware Storage Jar," by Maria Montoya Martinez and Julian Martinez, a shiny surface was combined witha suble matte surface to create contrast. In Walter Oltmann's "Caterpillar Suit," hundreds of fragments of brass & aluminum wire have been assembled to recreate the heavily tactile surface of a caterpillar. Light can enhance or obscure our understanding of form. As seen in two views of Daniel Chester French's, "Head of Abraham Lincoln." Cast shadows from directed light also further expand expressive potential. Carefully placed spotlights illumninate Ruth Asawa's sculptures and create mysterious cast shadows. Color definitions remain the same whether we are creating a three-dimensional or two-dimensional composition. Each color has a specific HUE (red, green, blue, yellow). VALUE: the lightness or darkness of a color. INTENSITY or SATURATION: refers to the purity of a color. TEMPERATURE: refers to the psychological characteristics attributed to a color. Contrast Color & Emotion Accents of color are especially powerful when the surrounding colors are subdued. In Andy Goldsworthy's "Red Rock," scarlet leaves distinguish the central stone from its somber gray neighbors. Despite their proximity to the viewer and their large scale, the white figures in George Segal's "WAlk, Don't Walk," are drained of color, alienated, and emotionally distant. Jean Baptiste Carpeaux, "The Dance," 1868-69
7ft 6.5 inches August Rodin, "The Kiss," 1886-98 Kate MccGwire, "Sluice," Mixed Media with Pigeon Feathers, 2009
Location: The Crypt @ St. Pancras Church, London Patrick Dougherty, "Wiggle in its Walk," Wegerzyn Garden Center, Dayton, Ohio, 2011 Jean-Baptiste Carpeaux, "The Dance," 1868-69 Giovanni de Bologna, "The Rape of the Sabine Women," 1583 "Laocoon and His Two Sons" Kendall Buster Karen Karnes, Vessel, 1987 Anish Kapoor, "Cloud Gate," Chicago, 2006 Henry Moore, "Locking Piece," 1963 Andy Goldsworthy Student work created from a single piece of paper that has been cut and bent to create a relief sculpture. Ken Price, Geometric Cup Series, 1973
Sold for $150,000 Eva Hild, Lamella, 2008, Ceramic Andrew Chase, "Cheetah," Recycled transmission parts, electrical conduit, plumbing pipes, and steel Louise Nevelson, "Wedding Chapel IV, 1960 Ant Farm (Chip Lord Hudson Marquez, Doug Michels), Cadillac Ranch, 1974, Ten Cadillacs, Amarillo, TX Moira North and Rudi Stern, "Neon Skates," 1986 Albert Paley, "Star," 2008, Steel and Wood The Great Pyramids of Giza, Egypt, 2560 BCE