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Albert Bandura's Social Learning Theory

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Deanna Quach

on 28 July 2014

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Transcript of Albert Bandura's Social Learning Theory

Major Concepts of the Social Learning Theory
Albert Bandura
The Social Learning Theory
Nursing Metaparadigm
The Modeling Process and Components of Social Learning Theory
Application of Theory in Nursing
Application of Bandura's Theory
Patient GM a 78 yo female has been transferred to the medical surgical floor post op after an uncomplicated ORIF due to a fractured left hip she acquired from a fall that occurred while GM was at home alone in the bathtub. Nurse Cathy has had GM for two consecutive days and wants to start patient education as she anticipates GM to be discharged to home within the next few days.
Yesterday when Nurse Cathy tried introducing teaching topics, GM was drowsy due to IV pain medication and suffering from pain causing her to lack the attention, today PO pain medication was administered well before Nurse Cathy began teaching to ensure GM pain free and not drowsy to actively engage in patient education.

Nurse Cathy explained to GM that taking care of her incision and dressing would be a responsibility after discharge to prevent infection and proper healing.
GM observed Nurse Cathy as she changed the dressing, Nurse Cathy worked slowly and explained each step of the process, upon completion Nurse Cathy asked GM to explain in her own words the steps of properly cleaning the incision and applying a dressing change to enhance the retention process.

A couple hours later, when rounding on GM, Nurse Cathy noticed that the previous dressing was saturated with serous fluid.
Nurse Cathy asked GM if she would like to attempt changing the dressing while she was there to observe her to practice the new skill, GM agreed and successfully cleaned and applying a new dressing to the incision site.

GM was motivated to keep improving her new skill to prevent infection due to the fact she had developed a Staph infection from a infected wound years ago and did not want an infection to arise from the new incision site.
Albert Bandura's
Social Learning Theory

The nursing metaparadigm is comprised of four concepts:
Person
Defined as:
a holistic being in the world
an open system
an adaptive system
a being who is greater than the sum of his parts
composed of physical, intellectual, biochemical, and psychosocial needs

Health
Defined as:
successful adaptation to life’s stressors
achievement of one’s full life potential
unity of mind, body, and soul
ability to function independently

Environment
Defined as:
external elements that affect the person
internal and external factors that influence the person
significant others that influence the person
an open system that permits the exchange of matter, energy, and information with other people
Nursing
Defined as:
a science, an art, and a practice discipline, and involves caring
Goals include:
care of the well and the sick
assisting with self-care activities
helping individuals attain their human potential
using nature’s laws of health
Purposes include:
placing the client in best condition to restore health
promoting adaptation of the client

McEwen, M. & Wills, E.M. (2011). Theoretical Basis for Nursing (3rd ed.). Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
McEwen, M. & Wills, E.M. (2011). Theoretical Basis for Nursing (3rd ed.). Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
McEwen, M. & Wills, E.M. (2011). Theoretical Basis for Nursing (3rd ed.). Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
McEwen, M. & Wills, E.M. (2011). Theoretical Basis for Nursing (3rd ed.). Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Person
The person is comprised of cognitive abilities, beliefs, self perceptions, physical characteristics, and thoughts.

The person has previous experiences, values, expectations, anticipations, capabilities, goals, and competencies.

Environment
It is comprised of one’s physical surroundings, family and friends, and other social influences.

It is described as a multifaceted organizational, social, cultural, physical package of discriminable stimuli.

Health
A person’s mental state is crucial to learning.

External reinforcement may affect learning and behavior.

Internal reinforcement, such as a feeling of satisfaction or sense of accomplishment may also influence learning and behavior.

Behavior
The behavior refers to a person’s motor responses, verbal responses, and social interactions.

It is described as a purposeful and directed action that is a product of neither the person or the environment, but a simultaneous product of both.

Application of the Metaparadigm
Bandura, A. (1978) The self system in reciprocal determinism. American Psychologist, 33(4), 344-358. Retrieved from http://www.uky.edu/~eushe2/Bandura/Bandura1978AP.pdf

Danford S. (n.d.) Dynamic reciprocal determinism: A synthetic transactional model of person-behavior-environment relations. Retrieved from http://www.edra.org/sites/default/files/publications/EDRA14-Danford-19-28_1.pdf

Bandura, A. (1978) The self system in reciprocal determinism. American Psychologist, 33(4), 344-358. Retrieved from http://www.uky.edu/~eushe2/Bandura/Bandura1978AP.pdf

Danford S. (n.d.) Dynamic reciprocal determinism: A synthetic transactional model of person-behavior-environment relations. Retrieved from http://www.edra.org/sites/default/files/publications/EDRA14-Danford-19-28_1.pdf
Bandura, A. (1971). Social learning theory. Retrieved from http://www.esludwig.com/uploads/2/6/1/0/26105457/bandura_sociallearningtheory.pdf

Bandura, A. (1978) The self system in reciprocal determinism. American Psychologist, 33(4), 344-358. Retrieved from http://www.uky.edu/~eushe2/Bandura/Bandura1978AP.pdf

Danford S. (n.d.) Dynamic reciprocal determinism: A synthetic transactional model of person-behavior-environment relations. Retrieved from http://www.edra.org/sites/default/files/publications/EDRA14-Danford-19-28_1.pdf

Family Life
Early Education
Date of Birth: December 4, 1925
Place of Birth: Town of Mundare in Alberta, Canada
Parents: Farmers of Eastern European descent
- Mother – Ukraine (country of origin)
- Father – Poland (country of origin)
Youngest child of six children; only boy with 5 sisters

College Years
Bandura attended 1 school in his hometown that served as the elementary & high school
Limited academic resources encouraged self-learning
Bandura’s parents encouraged learning outside the academic institution
These experiences set the stage for Bandura’s theory
Influences on Bandura's Work
Undergraduate Studies - University of British Columbia, 1949
PhD - University of Iowa, 1952
Selected Psychology major by chance, as the classes were in the morning that fit his carpool schedule
Bandura’s educational experiences taught him the importance of: Self-directedness… "tools of self-directedness serves one over a lifetime” - Bandura

Origin of Social Learning Theory
Robert Sears - Psychology Chair Stanford University
Research on “familial antecedents on behavior”
Impacted Bandura’s social learning/ aggression research
Richard Walters
Co-wrote Bandura’s first book
Conducted research in role modeling & observational learning in children
Clark Hull - Learning theorist
Viewed unseen variables as areas that could be examined in social behavior
Neal Miller
Psychology Professor Yale University
Believed social learning may help to explain behavior

Tom, L. (n.d.). Psyography: Albert Bandera. Retrieved July 23, 2014 from http://faculty.frostburg.edu/mbradley/psyography/albertbandura.html
“The students had to take charge of their own education.”
– Bandura
Bandura, A. (2006). Autobiography. Lindzey,et al. (Eds.), A history of psychology in autobiography (Vol. IX). Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association. Retrieved July 23, 2014 from http://www.uky.edu/~eushe2/Bandura/BanduraAutobiography2007.html.
Bandura, A. (2006). Autobiography. Lindzey,et al. (Eds.), A history of psychology in autobiography (Vol. IX). Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association. Retrieved July 23, 2014 from http://www.uky.edu/~eushe2/Bandura/BanduraAutobiography2007.html
A case study from clinical experience
A case study
Graduate nurse Grace has just started new nurse orientation on a busy ICU unit under the guidance of Nurse Nancy, a seasoned and experienced nurse that has worked in the ICU for 15 years. The two nurses have an initial meeting where they get to know each other and discuss expectations for the course of the 12-week ICU internship. Throughout the course of the internship, GN Grace would arrive to work well rested and motivated to gain new nursing knowledge and skills, she keenly paid close
attention
to every move and interaction Nurse Nancy made with patients, families, and other care team members. Nurse Nancy would ask questions to GN Grace regarding previously discussed topics, such as the rational behind electrolyte replacement, the necessity of daily oral care for intubated patients, how to properly obtain an arterial blood sample, etc., before she would administer medications or preform skills to ensure GN Grace was
retaining
previous lessons. During the first week GN grace only observed Nurse Nancy as she preformed tasks and provided patient care, by the second week GN Grace started preforming skills she was comfortable with under the direct supervision of Nurse Nancy, talking her way through each skill and asking questions if there were any doubts in her mind. By the 5th week GN Grace was able to preform many new skills proficiently that she had never completed before the start of her internship, before many tasks she would walk herself through the process before actually completing the task for the patient, allowing her to
reproduce
the same skill flawlessly for her patients. If there were flaws during the delivery of care to the patient Nurse Nancy would correct GN Grace almost immediately, providing
corrective feedback
, GN Grace would internalize the mistake and
punish
herself by being disappointed in her performance, motivating herself to do better next time. Nurse Nancy would praise GN Grace each time she would master new skills and be able to correctly give rational, this served as
vicarious reinforcement
for GN Grace as she viewed Nurse Nancy as a role model,
motivating
GN Grace to continue to learn new skills and explore rationale behind each skill.

Melissa Alhezayen
Christina Chemmachel
Tonita Fontenot
Deanna Quach
Marla Throssel

TEXAS WOMAN’S UNIVERSITY
NURS 5013
Theoretical Foundations of Nursing Practice
Summer 2014


Bandura, A. (2006). Autobiography. Lindzey,et al. (Eds.), A history of psychology in autobiography (Vol. IX). Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association. Retrieved July 23, 2014 from http://www.uky.edu/~eushe2/Bandura/BanduraAutobiography2007.html
Perspectives Bandura (n.d.). Retrieved July 22, 2014 from http://bdrum.com/Bandura/perspective.htm
Bandura does not explicitly discuss the concepts that comprise the nursing metaparadigm, but some are suggested in his theory.

Bandura’s theory is most often applied to patient education and focuses on how the person, the behavior, and the environment may have an effect on one’s ability to learn.
1952 - Married Virginia Varns, a nursing instructor
1953 - Bandura began teaching at Stanford
First book published, Adolescent Aggression, as a joint effort with graduate student
Combined cognitive & behavioral learning theories to develop “social learning theory” in 1960’s
Over the years Bandura’s theory evolved to Social Cognitive Theory of learning. His reasoning stemmed from his observations of humans’ internal codes of behavior.
Based on Bandura’s observations he divided behavior into two separate events, learning and performance.
Learning represented internal symbolic forms of verbal and visual codes that could serve as guidelines for future behavior.
Boree, C.G. (2006). Personality theories, Albert Bandura. Retrieved July 22, 2014 from http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/bandura.html
Psych basics, social learning theory (2014). Retrieved July 22, 2014 from http://www.psychologytoday.com/basics/social-learning-theory
P540 Bandura Group (1996, May). Social Learning Theory. Retrieved from http://condor.admin.ccny.cuny.edu/~hhartman/Overview%20of%20Bandura's%20Theory.htm 20140723211551452396989P540 Bandura Group 1996 Social Learning Theory
Tenets of Social Learning Theory
Tenets
Definition of Social Learning Theory
Albert Bandura believed people obtain new behavior by modeling & imitation.

“Albert Bandura’s (1977) social learning theory (B-SLT) is a general theory of human behavior that posits that cognitions, behavior, and environment interact to explain the acquisition, instigation, and maintenance of criminal behavior”

Cullen, F.T. & Wilcox, P. (2010). Bandura, Albert: Social Learning Theory. Encyclopedia of Criminological Theory Ed. (Vol 1., pp 67-72). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Reference.

Observational Learning – Observe/ produce the behavior “Bobo Doll”
*Self-efficacy – Self-confidence in capabilities
Reciprocal determinism – Open system between environment and person
Behavioral Capability- “Real” ability to perform
Reinforcements – +/- Forces that reinforce behavior
Expectations - Expected outcomes of behavior based on past reactions

*added as Social Learning Theory evolved to Social Concept Theory
Grusec. J.E. (1992). Social learning theory and developmental psychology: The legacies of Robert Sears and Albert Bandura. Developmental Psychology, 28(5), 776-786. Retrieved from http://www.psy.cmu.edu/~siegler/35grusec92.pdf

The Bobo Doll Study
What type of theory is Social Learning Theory?
Bandura’s Social Learning Theory is classified as a Constructivist theory
What is meant by constructivism?
The term refers to the idea that learners construct knowledge for themselves---each learner individually (and socially) constructs meaning---as he or she learns.
Constructing meaning is learning.
As a constructivist theory, the social learning theory emphasizes the importance of observing and modeling the behaviors, attitudes, and emotional reactions of others.
Thus it focuses on learning by observation and modeling.
The theory originally evolved from behaviorism but now includes many of the ideas that cognitivists also hold; as a result it is sometimes called social cognitive learning.

Hein, G. (1991). Constructivist learning theory. Retrieved from http://www.exploratorium.edu/ifi/resources/constructivistlearning.html
University of South Alabama. (n.d.). Social learning theory. Retrieved from http://www.southalabama.edu/oll/mobile/theory_workbook/social_learning_theory.htm
Areas of Focus
Social learning theory talks about how both environmental and cognitive factors interact to influence human learning and behavior.
It focuses on the learning that occurs within a social context.
It considers that people learn from one another, though such concepts as observational learning, imitation, and modeling
Accommodation and assimilation are the two key concepts within the constructivist classification of learning, which create the basis of an individual's new knowledge.


Assimilation
Assimilating causes an individual to incorporate new experiences into the old experiences.
This causes the individual to develop new viewpoints, reconsider what were once mistaken beliefs, and evaluate what is important, ultimately altering their perceptions.

Accommodation
Accommodation, on the other hand, is the process of reframing the world and new experiences.
Individuals determine that the world operates in a particular way, in a particular situation or context.
When things do not operate as they expect within that context, they must accommodate this difference and reframe their expectations with the outcomes.

University of South Alabama. (n.d.). Social learning theory. Retrieved from http://www.southalabama.edu/oll/mobile/theory_workbook/social_learning_theory.htm
Teachnology. (n.d.). Constructivism learning theory. Retrieved from http://www.teach-nology.com/currenttrends/constructivism/

Teachnology. (n.d.). Constructivism learning theory. Retrieved from http://www.teach-nology.com/currenttrends/constructivism/


Teachnology. (n.d.). Constructivism learning theory. Retrieved from http://www.teach-nology.com/currenttrends/constructivism/
Constructivist ideas posit that learning is embedded in a real-life, problem-solving environment and that there needs to be authentic versus academic contexts provided, in order for learning to take place.
Provisions for learner control are incorporated, with learner errors being used as a mechanism to provide feedback on learners’ understanding within the construct.
Finally, learning is rooted in social experience.

Moallem, M. (2001). Applying constructivist and objectivist learning theories in the design of a web-based course: Implications for practice. Retrieved from http://www.ifets.info/others/journals/4_3/moallem.html
People learn new behaviors in social situations by observing them and then modeling them.
Different things motivate people to learn and model behaviors using reinforcement through a modeling process.
A number of characteristics intrinsic to the individual ultimately determine how we chose to behave, and impact each other reciprocally (reciprocal determinism).

Capabilities that Contribute
to Learning
Bandura’s theory has 5 capabilities that contribute to learning:

Symbolism is the ability to think about social behavior in words and images.
Forethought is the ability to anticipate the consequences of our actions.
Self-regulation is the ability to adopt social and moral standards for ourselves.
Self-reflection is the ability to analyze our thoughts and actions.
Vicarious learning is the ability to learn new behavior and consequences by observing others.

Observational learning is the center to this theory.


Observational Learning
After his studies, Bandura was able to determine 3 basic models of observational learning.
Live Model - included an actual person performing a behavior
Verbal Instruction Model - involved telling of details and descriptions of a behavior, and giving verbal instruction as to how to do something
Symbolic Model - included either a real or fictional character demonstrating the behavior via movies, books, television, radio, online media and other media sources
Rice, K. (n.d.). Social learning theory. Retrieved from http://www.integratedsociopsychology.net/social_learning_theory.html


Melo, J. (2014). Learning theory. Retrieved from http://prezi.com/3vvmdemszjes/copy-of-copy-of-social-learning-theory

Melo, J. (2014). Learning theory. Retrieved from http://prezi.com/3vvmdemszjes/copy-of-copy-of-social-learning-theory
The Social Learning Theory says that people can learn by watching other people perform the behavior.

Observational learning explains that individuals learn behaviors by watching the behavior of the people around them in social situations, and eventually imitating them.

Observational Learning Effects
Disinhibition
to learn to exhibit a behavior that is usually disapproved of by most people because a model does the same without being punished

Observational Learning Effects
Facilitation
to be prompted to do something that is not ordinarily done because of insufficient motivation.

Observational Learning Effects
Observational learning
to learn a new behavior pattern by watching and imitating the performance of someone else
Observational Learning Effects
Inhibition
to learn not to do something that we already know how to do because a model being observed refrains from behaving in that way or does something different from what is intended to be done


Melo, J. (2014). Learning theory. Retrieved from http://prezi.com/3vvmdemszjes/copy-of-copy-of-social-learning-theory
Ballesteros, L. (n.d.). Social learning theory: Albert Bandura. Retrieved from
http://www.slideshare.net/yunheelim/ladie-ballesteros


Ballesteros, L. (n.d.). Social learning theory: Albert Bandura. Retrieved from
http://www.slideshare.net/yunheelim/ladie-ballesteros

1. Ballesteros, L. (n.d.). Social learning theory: Albert Bandura. Retrieved from
http://www.slideshare.net/yunheelim/ladie-ballesteros
2. Image retrieved from http://www.blitzmediadesign.com/blog/2010/09/seven-web-sites-that-drive-visitors-away/

1. Ballesteros, L. (n.d.). Social learning theory: Albert Bandura. Retrieved from
http://www.slideshare.net/yunheelim/ladie-ballesteros
2 Image retrieved from http://www.stjudenursingschool.com/dsd.php
Ballesteros, L. (n.d.). Social learning theory: Albert Bandura. Retrieved from http://www.slideshare.net/yunheelim/ladie-ballesteros
Bandura's Model and
Interrelated Concepts
Image retrieved from http://www.pgce.soton.ac.uk/IT/Learning/Behaviourism/BanduraSocialLearningTheory.png

The Modeling Process developed by Bandura helped researchers understand that not all observed behaviors could be learned effectively, nor do learned behaviors necessarily result in permanent behavioral changes.
Just because an individual is able to learn a behavior, doesn’t mean that their behavior will actually change.
The modeling process includes the following 4 steps in order for us to determine whether social learning is successful or not.
The steps are inter-relational, meaning that you will not learn effectively if any of the steps are not present or completed.
Ballesteros, L. (n.d.). Social learning theory: Albert Bandura. Retrieved from http://www.slideshare.net/yunheelim/ladie-ballesteros

Step 1: Attention
Social Cognitive Theory implies that you must pay attention for you to learn.
If you want to learn from the behavior of the model (the person that demonstrates the behavior), then you should eliminate anything that may distract you.
Also, the more interesting the model is to you, the more likely you are to pay full attention to the model and learn.


Ballesteros, L. (n.d.). Social learning theory: Albert Bandura. Retrieved from http://www.slideshare.net/yunheelim/ladie-ballesteros
Step 2: Retention
Retention of the newly learned behavior is necessary.
If the behavior isn’t retained by the participant, then learning of the behavior cannot be established, the participant may need to go back and observe the model again and try and memorize information about how to perform the behavior.


Ballesteros, L. (n.d.). Social learning theory: Albert Bandura. Retrieved from http://www.slideshare.net/yunheelim/ladie-ballesteros
Step 3: Reproduction
When there is success in paying attention and retaining relevant information, reproduction step requires the participant to demonstrate the behavior.
In this phase, practice of the behavior by repeatedly doing it is important for improvement.
Ballesteros, L. (n.d.). Social learning theory: Albert Bandura. Retrieved from http://www.slideshare.net/yunheelim/ladie-ballesteros
Step 4: Motivation
Feeling motivated to repeat the behavior is what you need in order to keep on performing it.
This is where reinforcement and punishment come in.
You can be rewarded by demonstrating the behavior properly, and punished by displaying it inappropriately.

There are 3 types of reinforcement that drive an individual to act in a certain way. They are direct reinforcement, vicarious reinforcement and self-reinforcement.

Ballesteros, L. (n.d.). Social learning theory: Albert Bandura. Retrieved from http://www.slideshare.net/yunheelim/ladie-ballesteros

Direct reinforcement is when the observer performs the modeled behavior and gets either positively reinforced by direct praise or criticism by the individual from whom they are learning the behavior.
Vicarious reinforcement is when the observer anticipates getting a reward for behaving in a certain way because someone else has been similarly rewarded.
Self-reinforcement is when the observer behaves in a certain way because they derive intrinsic satisfaction from the behavior, independent of outside stimuli.
Ballesteros, L. (n.d.). Social learning theory: Albert Bandura. Retrieved from http://www.slideshare.net/yunheelim/ladie-ballesteros
Ballesteros, L. (n.d.). Social learning theory: Albert Bandura. Retrieved from http://www.slideshare.net/yunheelim/ladie-ballesteros
Ballesteros, L. (n.d.). Social learning theory: Albert Bandura. Retrieved from http://www.slideshare.net/yunheelim/ladie-ballesteros
Application of Theory Concepts
Observational learning
The majority of observational learning within nursing practice comes from observing a live model
Internships are used throughout nursing to facilitate learning of skills and practices

Preceptors become models for novice nurses to gain nursing insight
Nurses engage patients and family members to learn new skills and practices that are going to be necessary for maintain optimal health

Nurses become live models for patients to model after
Application of Theory Concepts
Attention
With experience and increased nursing knowledge many nurses that are preceptors become role models for new nurses

Motivation to become better nurses drives learning for new nurses

Preceptors must engage new nurses and provide an environment conducive to learning
Learning is facilitated by patients being motivated to reach a better health state

Past experiences either positive or negative can also facilitate learning

Patients that are suffering from and altered mental state due to pain, drowsiness, depression, etc. will deficit in attention negatively effecting learning

Application of Theory Concepts
Retention
Learning nursing theory and being able to verbalize learned concepts is one way of showing retention in new nurses
Nurses can enhance retention for patients by modifying learning styles and removing barriers to learning

Teach back method of learning can aid in gauging how much new knowledge the patient has gained

Application of Theory Concepts
Reproduction
The reproduction of newly learned skills and practices involves the combination of attention and retention

Supervision of new nurses by preceptors is essential to ensuring nurses are correctly reproducing skills accurately

Repetition facilitates skillfulness
Practice of newly learned concepts increases improvement of skills, the early initiation of patients learning new education and participating hand on is essential to their ability to reproduce skills effectively
Application of Theory Concepts
Motivation
Direct, vicarious, and self reinforcements of new nurses aid in motivating them to learn new skills as they gain confidence

Punishment can also motivate new nurses to do better, allowing them to learn from mistakes
Many patients strive to achieve better health serving as motivation

Past experiences with illnesses and poor health can motivate patients to learn new skills to maintain optimal health
Social learning theory is based in psychology, a discipline that aims to understand the drivers behind behavior of the individual
As model evolved, emphasis on learning via social context via observation
Nursing can benefit from incorporating this learning theory in everyday practice, nursing education, and research
Nursing is a complex intersection of clinical management impacted by patient’s psychosocial factors
Social Learning Theory & Nursing
Interestingly, once a person learns a new behavior by observation/modeling, it does not mean that their behavior will necessarily change, nor that they will adopt the new behavior into their repertoire even if they are positively motivated or reinforced to do so in their environment.
Nursing Practice
Nursing Education
Research
How can nursing apply the Social Learning Theory into everyday practice?
The social learning theory is easy to use, whether it is used on an individual, a group, or a community.
Learning theories help provide a rationale for collecting valid and reliable data about a patient's health status and then taking the data and applying it to practice for better patient health outcomes.
Health professionals implement the social learning theory through
Patient education.
Ex: Use of respondent conditioning to extinguish anticipatory nausea with chemotherapy.
Patient/Client interactions.
Ex: A nurse learns how to deal effectively with a difficult patient by watching how the other nurses interact with the patient.
Staff management and staff training.
Ex: Providing a mentor with experience and desirable professional attitudes to train a novice nurse.
Braungart, M. M., & Braungart, R. G. (2007). Applying learning theories to healthcare practice. In (pp. 51-89). Retrieved from http://www.jblearning.com/samples/0763751375/chapter2.pdf
Continuing education.
Ex: Computer based tutorials or instructions is a form of operant conditioning.
Nursing education.
Ex: Managers that promote a positive working environment enhances nurses’ learning, competence and satisfaction.
Health promotion programs.
Ex: Person's who value a positive effect of a changed lifestyle (incentive) will attempt to change.
Rosenstock, I. M., Strecher, V. J., & Becker, M. H. (1988). Social learning theory and the health belief model. Sage Journals. Retrieved from http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/handle/2027.42/67783/10.1177_109019?sequence=2
Patient GM a 78 yo female has been transferred to the medical surgical floor post op after an uncomplicated ORIF due to a fractured left hip she acquired from a fall that occurred while GM was at home alone in the bathtub. Nurse Cathy has had GM for two consecutive days and wants to start patient education as she anticipates GM to be discharged to home within the next few days. Yesterday when Nurse Cathy tried introducing teaching topics, GM was drowsy due to IV pain medication and suffering from pain causing her to lack the attention, today PO pain medication was administered well before Nurse Cathy began teaching to ensure GM pain free and not drowsy to actively engage in patient education. Nurse Cathy explained to GM that taking care of her incision and dressing would be a responsibility after discharge to prevent infection and proper healing. GM observed Nurse Cathy as she changed the dressing, Nurse Cathy worked slowly and explained each step of the process, upon completion Nurse Cathy asked GM to explain in her own words the steps of properly cleaning the incision and applying a dressing change to enhance the retention process. A couple hours later, when rounding on GM, Nurse Cathy noticed that the previous dressing was saturated with serous fluid. Nurse Cathy asked GM if she would like to attempt changing the dressing while she was there to observe her to practice the new skill, GM agreed and successfully cleaned and applying a new dressing to the incision site. GM was motivated to keep improving her new skill to prevent infection due to the fact she had developed a Staph infection from a infected wound years ago and did not want an infection to arise from the new incision site.

Melo, J. (2014). Learning theory. Retrieved from http://prezi.com/3vvmdemszjes/copy-of-copy-of-social-learning-theory/
A persons innate qualities include their attitudes, beliefs, and intelligence and their strategic thinking abilities
A person’s environment includes their physical location, resources, other people surrounding them, and the consequences of their actions
Behavior describes the verbal, and physical choices an individual chooses to make
In the concept of reciprocal determinism, Bandura proposed that a person, their environment, and their behavior are all connected.
The model suggests:
A person can be
influenced by their environment and behavior.
The environment influences a person’s thoughts and behavior.
Behaviors shape one’s environment and thoughts.
P= Person
B= Behavior
E= Environment

All are reciprocally deterministic. The more able one feels to complete their goals (self-efficacy), the more one is able to regulate their behavior (self-regulation) and increase self-esteem.

University of South Alabama. (n.d.). Social learning theory. Retrieved from http://www.southalabama.edu/oll/mobile/theory_workbook/social_learning_theory.htm

University of South Alabama. (n.d.). Social learning theory. Retrieved from http://www.southalabama.edu/oll/mobile/theory_workbook/social_learning_theory.htm

All of these things further influence self-efficacy, self-esteem and self-regulation of individuals
Self-efficacy is the measure of one’s ability to complete tasks or goals, and
Self-esteem is the emotional evaluation of one’s own self-worth
Self-regulation is deciding to perform the right behavior at the right time. Self-regulation allows us to choose behaviors that help us to avoid punishments and move towards long-term goals. It is perhaps more heavily influenced by the environment of the individual.
Melo, J. (2014). Learning theory. Retrieved from http://prezi.com/3vvmdemszjes/copy-of-copy-of-social-learning-theory/

Social Learning Theory has found a growing niche in the realm of nursing education. Bandura stated the key to learning and changing is based on the individual’s cognition.

Cognitive learning involves how one perceives information, interprets the information based on what is already known, and then reorganizes the information into new insights or understanding.
Bandura, A. (2001). Social cognitive theory: An agentic perspective. Annual Review Psychology, 52, 1-26.
Retrieved from http://ezproxy.twu.edu:2225/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=5&sid=b438abed-cbb3-4993-b872-eefe6be02aa8%40sessionmgr115&hid=113
Cognition is further broken down into four sub-concepts.

Perception: A learner’s goals, expectations, and experiences. This decides how an individual learns and is the key to learning.

Thought: How the information received is processed.
Thought is broken down into four important processes.
1. Attention: Observation of a role model
2. Processing: Sensory
3. Memory storage: Short term memory and long term
memory
4. Action: A response to information based on how it was
processed and stored

Braungart, M. M., & Braungart, R. G. (2007). Applying learning theories to healthcare practice. In (pp. 51-89). Retrieved from http://www.jblearning.com/samples/0763751375/chapter2.pdf

The fun side of social learning theory application is the use of multi-media in nursing
Technological advances have expanded connectivity and communication for nurses

Social media can assist nursing faculty help nursing students gain a better understanding of skills in professional communication, health policies, and area of patient privacy/ethics.

National League for Nursing (NLN) is helping nursing establish the Technology Informatics Guiding Educational Reform (TIGER) competencies to assist educators to develop courses that include blogging or engagement through the medium known as Facebook®.
Schmitt, T. L., Sims-Giddens, S. S., & Booth, R. G. (2012). Social media use in nursing education. The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 17(3). Retrieved from http://www.nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/ANAMarketplace/ANAPeriodicals/OJIN/TableofContents/Vol-17-2012/No3-Sept-2012/Social-Media-in-Nursing-Education.html

Social cognition perspective: This processing ties the influences of social structure information into cognitive events.

Cognitive/learning theories are applied to diverse areas of human functioning including career choices, organizational behavior, and mental and physical health.

Simulation is effective in teaching and evaluation. The locus of control is internal and the individual can use previous knowledge in a simulation experience.
Denler, H., Wolters, C., & Benzon, M. (2014, January). Education.com. Retrieved July 20, 2014, from http://www.education.com/reference/article/social-cognitive-theory/

Rutherford-Hemming, T. (2012). Simulation methodology in nursing education and adult learning theory. Adult Learning, 23(3), 129-137
Schmitt, T. L., Sims-Giddens, S. S., & Booth, R. G. (2012). Social media use in nursing education. The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 17(3). Retrieved from http://www.nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/ANAMarketplace/ANAPeriodicals/OJIN/TableofContents/Vol-17-2012/No3-Sept-2012/Social-Media-in-Nursing-Education.html

The table lists social media software tools that are rapidly entering into the nursing education classrooms. This does not include the sites for networking or creating e-portfolios



Through the years of observation and research, Albert Bandura continually revised his theory

He discovered with research the importance of keeping up with how society was growing.

His most current work contends with the effects of social media.

The literature discussed the importance of research whether it was related to the medium of nursing or advertising.
The attention phase was of particular importance
Attention is the process of observing a role model
When a role model comes with high status and competence, the model is more likely to be observed by the learner
However, the learner’s own characteristics, such as needs, self-esteem, and competence, can prove to be the more significant determiner of attention

Braungart, M. M., & Braungart, R. G. (2007). Applying learning theories to healthcare practice. In (pp. 51-89). Retrieved from http://www.jblearning.com/samples/0763751375/chapter2.pdf

During the research phases Bandura found modeling to be another significant factor.
“Modeling” influences have a wider psychological effect, especially as observers acquire cognitive skills and new patterns of behavior by observing others.
One factor created a limiting effect on the scope of research. This was evidenced when modeling was conceptualized as “imitating”.
Bandura, A. (2001). Social cognitive theory: An agentic perspective. Annual Review Psychology, 52, 1-26. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.twu.edu:2225/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=5&sid=b438abed-cbb3-4993-b872-eefe6be02aa8%40sessionmgr115&hid=113
Cross cultural research concludes that perceived personal efficacy contributes to productive functioning of both collectivistic and individualistic cultures.

Culture also shapes the way in which efficacy beliefs develop, the purpose to which they are used, and the socio-structural arrangements through which those beliefs will be exercised.

Bandura, A. (2001). Social cognitive theory: An agentic perspective. Annual Review Psychology, 52, 1-26. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.twu.edu:2225/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=5&sid=b438abed-cbb3-4993-b872-eefe6be02aa8%40sessionmgr115&hid=113
Research study conducted with the following primary aims
Assess extent to which students perceive that they learned through observations
Examine function of role-modeling in the learning process
Theoretical framework was based on Bandura's social construct theory
Population: Nursing students
Results
Positive role modeling had a positive impact on learning.
Negative or no role modeling had a negative impact on learning.
Charneia, E. (2007). Nursing students' perceptions of role modeling as it relates to learning in the clinical environment. Capella University, ProQuest, UMI Dissertations Publishing, 2007. 3250069
Research study conducted in a nursing school setting with primary aim:
Examine social cognitive theory as a learning tool in preceptorship
Assessment Tools: Surveys, journals, interviews (students/ preceptors/ professors)
Results: “Reciprocal determinants of environment, personal-cognitive factors, & behavior as described by Bandura were found to influence learning behavior”
Future research recommendations - Research context of curriculum development.
Sandoval, J.B. (1995). Social cognitive theory: a framework for understanding learning in a nursing-student preceptor relationship (doctoral dissertation). The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, ProQuest, UMI Dissertations Publishing, 9605167. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.ezproxyhost.library.tmc.edu/docview/304230116/abstract?source=fedsrch&accountid=7034
Limitations of Theory in Research
Bandura's theory has some limitations in the research setting:
Attempts to simplify the learning process
Does not always account for other factors that may influence the social development
Can be one-dimensional and does not isolate possible confounding variables that may influence behavior

The theory is still beneficial but the researcher must keep limitations in mind when interpreating the results
Social Learning Theory (2009). Retrieved July 22, 2014 from cranepsych.edublogs.org/files/2009/07/social_learning_theory.pdf.

References
References


Braungart, M. M., & Braungart, R. G. (2007). Applying learning theories to healthcare practice. In (pp. 51-89). Retrieved from http://www.jblearning.com/samples/0763751375/chapter2.pdf

Reciprocal Determinism Model [Photograph]. (n.d). Retrieved from http://www.buzzle.com/articles/reciprocal-determinism.html
Bandura, A. (1971). Social Learning Theory. New York City: General Learning Press. Retrieved from http://www.esludwig.com/uploads/2/6/1/0/26105457/bandura_sociallearningtheory.pdf
Note: This presentation is using the social media called Prezi (R) . Voki (R) is great for nursing role play and creating scenarios!
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Reciprocal Determinism
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