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Group B5 - Higher Order Thinking
Transcript of Group B5 - Higher Order Thinking
Higher Order Thinking
Tiffany Yeomans What is Higher Order Thinking? Theoretical Framework How Can Students' Higher Order
Thinking Skills Be Developed? How do you determine if
an activity or process requires
higher order thinking? Field
Experiences References Asks students to:
-Synthesize, Analyze, Apply & Evaluate
-Learn how to manipulate the material
-Understand how it applies to various scenarios
-Analyze it to strengthen their understanding
(Gray & Waggoner, 2002, p.185)
Bloom's Taxonomy Bloom, 1956
Used by teachers to the develop students’ higher level thinking skills
Platform for objects, lesson plans, and objectives
Nouns refer to learning objectives Anderson, & Krathwohl, 2001
More focus on metacognition and self-efficacy
Goal is to create independent, self-regulated learners
Verbs refer to student actions If you are asking.....
What is____? Can you recall____? How would you explain____?, you are asking KNOWLEDGE level questions
What is the main idea of ____? How would you summarize ____? What facts or ideas show _____?, you are asking COMPREHENSION level questions.
What examples can you find to ____? How would you show your understanding of ____?, you are asking APPLICATION level questions.
How would you classify ____? What conclusions can you draw from _____? Why do you think ____?, you are asking ANALYSIS level questions.
What would happen is ____? Supposed you could ____? What would you do?, you are asking SYNTHESIS level questions.
What is your opinion of ____? Why was it better than ____? What judgment would you make about ____?, you are asking EVALUATION level questions. Increase the rigor of critical thinking in the classroom to provide differentiated learning experiences (McCollister and Sayler, 2010, p. 42)
“The greatest challenge teachers face is to help students think and understand, not just memorize” (Woolfolk, 2007, p.282).
Including more problem solving activities that have implications in real-world settings (Noddings, 2007, p. 11)
Specific strategies for developing higher order thinking skills
in the classroom: Higher Order Thinking is the ability to process and manipulate complex ideas beyond simple recall and understanding, often associated with the ability to apply, analyze, evaluate what was been taught in order to create new meaning, based on the Revised Bloom's Taxonomy of Learning. Activities that develop higher order thinking and create a critical thinking environment:
Encourage students to read, write, and argue (Noddings, 2008, p.10).
Focus on the essential questions that surround your classes’ big ideas (Bush, 2009, p.18).
Consider implications for the real world (Noddings, 2008, p.10).
Do NOT merely require memorization and regurgitation (Noddings, 2008, p. 12).
Encourage analysis, take into consideration perspective, and give students the opportunity to think critically about the information they are learning (Bush, 2009, p.18).
Involve students doing more than recalling facts, instead ensuring that they comprehend well enough to explain a process with detail, and can relate the information to real life (Paziotopoulos, 2004, p.674). Discussion Strategies
(Bush, 2009, p.15) Writing Strategies
(Bush, 2009, pp. 16-17) Inquiry Strategies
(Bush, 2009, p.15) Self Regulating Strategies
(Ormrod, 2008, p.239) Focus the students during discussion by asking higher order thinking questions
Provide rich text for them to reference and explore
Teach students to distinguish between different levels of thinking using a graphic organizer such as a skyscraper. Explain to students that as they move towards the top of the skyscraper, they’re engaged in more meaningful understanding and expanded thinking (Paziotopoulos, p.673). Student writing and reader responses should be focused on evaluation, elaboration and synthesis
Writing should address higher order thinking level questions Use the investigative and explorative mind set often used in the library for the classroom
Have students learn for themselves the answers to their questions through research and analysis
Cooperative learning via six different centers, each with a folder containing questions from a level of Bloom’s Taxonomy. Have students work through the centers on whichever topic you choose so that they will have engaged in each level of thinking (Paziotopoulos, p.677) Examples of specific discussion strategies:
Great Books Shared Inquiry Discussions
(Bush, 2009, p.15) Examples of specific writing strategies:
Knowledge Telling to Knowledge Transforming
PREP graphic organizers
6 + 1 Trait writing prompts
(Bush, 2009, pp. 16-17) Authentic Examples of Higher Order Thinking & Bloom's Taxonomy During Field Experiences
Primary References Non-Scholarly References Bush, G. (2009). Toward a culture of inquiry in a world of choices.
Knowledge Quest, 38(1) 12-23.
Gray, K. C., Waggoner, J. E. (2002). Multiple intelligences meet Bloom’s
taxonomy. Kappa Delta Pi, 38(4).
McCollister, K., & Sayler, M. (2010). Lift the ceiling: Increase rigor with
critical thinking skills. Gifted Child Today, 33(I), 41-47.
Noddings, N. (2008). All our students thinking. Educational Leadership,
Ormrod, J.E. (2008). Educational Psychology: Developing Learners (6
ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Merrill Prentice Hall.*
Paziotopoulos, A., Kroll, M. (2004). Hooked on thinking. Reading
Teacher, 57(7), 672-77.
Woolfolk, A. E. (2007). Educational Psychology: Active Learning Edition
(10 ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.*
*Textbook Chapters 6 and 7 Dalton, J. & Smith, D. (1986). Applying Bloom’s taxonomy . Retrieved
Clark, D. (2010). Bloom’s taxonomy of learning domains: The three
types of learning. Retrieved from
Inspiring Teachers. (2010). Tips: Alternative assessment techniques.
Retrieved from http://www.inspiringteachers.com/classroom
_resource /tips/assessment/alternative_assessment -
Keys to increasing
critical thinking in the
classroom are: Including more problem solving activities that have implications in real-world settings (Noddings, p. 11)
Asking questions which require students to examine the material more in depth (McCollister and Sayler, p. 42)
Requiring students to evaluate their resources for validity and credibility (McCollister and Sayler, p. 42)
Creating assignments that require decision making (McCollister and Sayler, p. 42)
Encouraging students to develop their metacognition, or “knowledge about [their] own thinking process,” because being aware of their own thoughts and actions will help them understand problem-solving processes better by allowing them to consciously decide which techniques and strategies to use (Woolfolk, p.277)
higher order thinking is being
promoted in the classroom
(Bush, 2009, p.18) Evaluate what the essential questions are involving your topic
Questions that encourage analysis and take into consideration perspective, give students the opportunity to think critically about the information they are learning
Have students to set and track their own learning goals
Let students learn without teacher direction sometimes so they can make decisions on their own
Assign projects that have with a lot of flexibility in the outcome so that they have the opportunity to be creative
Model self-regulation and problem-solving strategies using think-alouds
Evaluate where on Bloom's Taxonomy
the questions you are asking students fall
(Paziotopoulos, 2004, p.674): TIFFANY – Adult Literacy League
At the Adult Literacy League, ESOL students had to recall facts and language traits learned from previous classes or acquired in natural conversations. They then had to APPLY the written and spoken language strategies and ANALYZE the English language by classifying verbs, nouns, adverbs, etc and comparing or contrasting them to their native language. This allowed students to pick up on similarities and overcome the differences. The ESOL students had to make language based inferences and EVALUATE their progress of learning the English language. Each session centered on students CREATING new sentences, participating in conversations and completing worksheets to build upon their English skill level
CAROLINE – Dance Class
The dance class I observed required the students to APPLY new steps they were learning by demonstrating the steps themselves. After they had practiced awhile, the teacher would name a step and they would have to demonstrate it. This showed that they had learned the name and the movement it labeled, figured out how to do it, and then demonstrated their coordination in executing it on their own. At one point during the dance class, the girls CREATED their own routine, by ANALYZING the music; the girls EVALUATED their choices on a dance routine and revised it as needed.
LISA – Spanish 2 Class
While observing a Spanish 2 class, students had to REMEMBER vocabulary from previous classes and discussions to use on a presentation project and later on a paper-pencil style multistep assessment where they had to remember discussions and vocabulary, translate words, and APPLY that knowledge to put the words in the context into sentences without the use of a word bank. Students had to ANALYZE a paragraph during the assessment to determine how to conjugate the verbs they were required to insert to complete a sentence then they had to EVALUATE the completed sentences ensure the sentences flow and make sense. For the presentation portion, they had to EVALUATE resources to determine their relationship to the cultural presentations projects CREATED.
MITZIE – Math Tutoring Session
During a math tutoring session with an 8th grader going into 9th grade algebra, we started with a skill drill activity to ensure she COMPREHENDS and UNDERSTANDS the basic functions of algebra, compare, classify and interpret operations while learning the sequential steps to problem solving . This activity called for rote memorization skills and a clear ability to recall facts and functions quickly. The student had to APPLY her knowledge of algebra and problem solving skills to solve the practice problems in our session. She then had to read word problems, deconstruct the sentences, and distinguish important information from irrelevant information, then solve the problem while EVALUATING the right and wrong procedures and answers
MICHELLE – Art Camp
One of the projects done the day I volunteered was an alligator made of puzzle pieces. The class discussed 3D art and the teacher used the example of 3D movies to help the children understand the concept. Students were then asked to build their alligators up by using multiple layers and making them as "3D" as possible. In this instance the students APPLIED their knowledge of what 3D was from the movies to their art. They also EVALUATED and SYNTHESIZED the information they heard from the teacher and the visual example provided to CREATE their own version of a 3D art piece.
FERNANDO – Reading Class
I worked with a third grade summer reading class specifically for students who did not pass the FCAT Reading. Students were asked to read a four paragraph essay on dolphins, and then write down three key words for each paragraph. This activity, as simple as it may seem, actually engages students in higher order thinking because it forces them to ANALYSIS each paragraph by differentiating between important and unimportant information and selecting the most important. It also forces students to implement a procedure they were previously taught to a new task.
Field Experience Table This may help you see how the different levels of Bloom's Taxonomy apply to our experiences. Zoom in on this after the presentation to see it better!