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Peter Crites

on 27 January 2014

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Transcript of Urbanization

the process of people moving from
rural areas to more densely populated
rural areas are less populated areas
where most people make a living harvesting
natural resources
urban areas are more densely populated areas*
where most people do not make there living
harvesting natural resources
*definitions of "densely populated" varies
from one area to another
Denmark - 250 people qualifies as a city
Greece - 10,000 people qualifies as a city
U.S. - 2,500 people qualifies
Urbanization began with agricultural revolution
more food with less work - allowed for
individuals to not work on farm, gathered
into villages
Developed countries are currently at about 74% urban

Developing countries are currently at about 44% and
rising quickly
2050 - preditions of 70% of world's population living in cities
2008 - 50% of world's population lived in urban areas
400 cities of 1 million people
19 cities of 10 million people
1950 - 30% of world's population lived in urban areas
83 cities of 1 million people
1900 - 14% of world's poulation lived in urban areas
12 cities of 1 million people
1800 - only 3% of world's population lived in urban areas
Push - factors that force people out of rural areas
- lack of jobs and/or education
- lack of services
- lack of medical facilities
- lack of diversity
Pull factors - factors that draw people to
urban areas
- people are searching for jobs
- urban lifestyles
- cultural events or sites

1. Tokyo, Japan 26.6
2. New York- Newark, USA 15.9
3. Mexico City, Mexico 10.7
4. Osaka-Kobe, Japan 9.8
5. São Paulo, Brazil 9.6
6. Los Angeles-Long Beach-Santa Ana, USA 8.9
7. Buenos Aires, Argentina 8.8
8. Paris, France 8.6
9. Calcutta, India 7.9
10. Moscow, Russian Federation 7.6
1. Tokyo, Japan 34.5
2. Mexico City, Mexico 18.0
3. New York-Newark, USA 17.9
4. São Paulo, Brazil 17.1
5. Bombay, India 16.1
6. Shanghai, China 13.2
7. Calcutta, India 13.1
8. Delhi, India 12.4
9. Buenos Aires, Argentina 11.9
10. Los Angeles-Long Beach-Santa Ana, USA 11.8
1. Tokyo, Japan 36.4
2. Bombay, India 26.4
3. Delhi, India 22.5
4. Dhaka, Bangladesh 22.0
5. São Paulo, Brazil 21.4
6. Mexico City, Mexico 21.0
7. New York-Newark, USA 20.6
8. Calcutta, India 20.6
9. Shanghai, China 19.4
10. Karachi, Pakistan 19.1
the spread of low-density urban and suburban
development outward from an urban center
Two reasons for sprawl
1. more people
2. more land use per person
- afluence
Problems with sprawl
Transportsation Issues
- more roads needed to connected a larger area
- public transportation less effective
- Car emmisions lead to air pollution
- Motor oil, road salts and runoff from parking
lots lead to water pollution
- pollution
- inactivity from sitting in cars, less walking
Land Use
- more developed land = less natural land
loss of ecosystem services
- brownfields; population moves away from center
leaving behind abandon and deteriating areas
- tax base leaves city leaving less money
to maintain services
Climate, topography, and the configuration of waterways help determine if a small settlement becomes a large city

Many well-located cities are linchpins in trading networks

They funnel in agricultural resources and raw materials from the surrounding regions

Most fast-growing cities are in developing countries

Less need for farm labor due to industrialization

Wars, conflict, and ecological degradation

Their economic growth does not match their population growth

Many of these cities face overcrowding, pollution, and poverty

American cities grew rapidly due to increased trade

By the mid-1900s, the U.S. and other countries had accumulated more people than jobs

Crowding and deteriorating economic conditions occurred

Unemployment caused poverty and crime

Affluent city dwellers moved to cleaner, less-crowded suburbs

Today, population centers are decentralizing

- Global commerce, jet travel, television, cell
phones, the Internet

-Businesses don’t need to be in urban areas

-Highway networks make it easier to commute

City Planning and Zoning
- Encourage development in a way that accommodates a growing population, revitalizes older, decaying portions of the city and re-establishes the tax base

- Zoning is establishing areas for specific types of developments
Urban Growth Boundaries
- Limits sprawl: keeps growth in existing urbanized areas
- Revitalize downtowns
- Protect farms, forests, and their industries
- Ensure urban dwellers some access to open space
- May reduce infrastructure costs

- Increases housing prices within their boundaries
- Restricts development outside UGB
- Increases the density of new housing inside the UGB
- Increasing pressure to expand boundaries

Smart Growth - New Urbanism

Uses land uses policies to create smaller, healthier neighborhoods.
- Encourages compact development; schools,
businesses and housing close together
- Encourages walking or use of mass transit
- Preserves open areas
- Provides variety of housing options

Transportation options are vital
A key in improvement of quality of urban life

Options include:
- Public buses
- Trains and subways
- Light rail = smaller rail systems powered by electricity

Benefits: Cheaper, more energy efficient, and cleaner
- Traffic congestion is eased

Problems: reduces flexibility, expensive to convert road to
rail, rail requires dedicated paths through area
Open Spaces and Parks

- Escape noise, pollution and stress of urban life
- Provides recreation, entertainment, and scenic
- Helps protect wild areas by preventing isolation
and disconnect from nature

Smaller Public Spaces

Areas that enhance the quality of neighborhoods
- Playgrounds for children
- Dog parks for pets
- Gardens for food, flowers and a quiet place

- Paths to connect parks or neighborhoods
- Wildlife cooridors
- Enhances values of property
- Improves water quality
Washington - Capital Crescent Trail
New York City - High Line

Urban Areas - Pros and Cons: Cons
- urban areas are resource sinks
- long transportation of resources uses fossil fuels
- people are isolated from impacts of resource use
- ecological footprint is far greater than size of city
- cities use 2% of land, but 75% of resources
- export lots of pollution
Urban Areas - Pros and Cons: Pros
- urban areas prevent natural land from being developed
- urban areas are more efficient
- urban areas are intellectual centers,
greater exchange of ideas, centers of research
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