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Theories of Motivation

SLCO100 Assessment 2A
by

Mitchos Aurelius

on 26 January 2014

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Transcript of Theories of Motivation

The physical nature of sport requires individual’s to use proper safety equipment, such as appropriate footwear and protective pads. Sport and exercise are physiological requirements of our bodies to stay healthy and vital. Sport is an excellent way to provide a sense of belonging, by being affiliated as part of a team, or club. Achieving goals and mastering skills increase self-esteem. Sport can also be the path to self-actualization, decreasing stress and anxiety. (Jarvis, 2006)


Theories of Motivation.
Expectancy Theory in Work:

By using the formula Motivation=Expectancy x Instrumentality x Valence, Vrooms theory can show leaders how effectively motivated a worker can be based on their own desired outcome.

For the formula to work, an employee must expect that every part will provide them with some form of reward.
Most employee's will only be motivated if they know that their expectations will be met and that the effort they put in will be worth the reward at the end. If the amount of effort required does not meet this reward then most workers will not be motivated enough to undertake the job.

Expectancy Theory in Sport:
Although designed for the workplace, expectancy theory can also be applied to sports. Looking at professional athletes, the same formula (M = E x I x V) can be applied. Using the case study of free agent baseball players (Harder 1991) it was noted that players entering the free agent draft would associate good performance with a greater financial reward. (Harder 1991 p459). This motivated second and third year free agents who saw the rewards offered to the first year agents for their performance.
Expectancy theory in study:
Applying expectancy theory to study can also be achieved. A student can expect that, by studying and applying effort in their required work, they will be rewarded with a good mark or a pass in their subject. The Valence in study is almost always going to be a pass, yet if the system is designed to show the more effort will result in a greater pass ie. High Distinction, this can motivate a student to apply greater effort.
Mazlow's Theory in Work:
Using Kellogg’s business case study as an example,
we learn that Maslow’s theory could be used as the basis for ethical codes of practices required for businesses.
By having a safe and healthy working environment, employees can feel confident, provided they act appropriately, their risk of injury is kept to a minimum.
Kellogg’s implements 'K-Values'. These include:
“… being positive, seeing the best in people and recognising diversity it is in this way that employees, sense of belonging and self-esteem is nurtured.’ (The times 100, 2013)
Allowing individuals to take on challenging tasks, encouraging employees to reach their full potential, addresses how Kellogg’s helps their employees
reach self-actualization.
(The times 100, 2013)


Introduction:
Motivation is a powerful force that drives and maintains human behaviors at work, in sport and study.

Information regarding motivation theory can be easily accessed through a range of resources on the web. To ensure that the information sourced is credible, Metzger (2007) states that there are five criteria that should be used to assess the credibility of internet based information: accuracy, authority, objectivity, currency and coverage of scope.

Peer reviewed articles addressed the above five criteria because each article must go through a process which involves a re-evaluation of many professionals who are qualified and have credentials in the subject.

Evaluating credibility of other sources can be challenging because of their dynamic nature. For these sources it is important to ensure that the information is up to date, users should check to see that information seems to be correct and not making outrageous claims, that there is a list of references, and that contact details are listed. This check list helps users validate credibility.

Mazlow's Theory in Study:
Mazlow's theory in sport
References:
Goal setting in Work:
Goal setting in Sport
Goal setting in Study:
Gomez-Minambres, J, 2012, ‘Motivation through goal setting’, Journal of Economic Psychology, Vol.33, no 6, pp.1223-1239, viewed 27 December 2013, <http://www.sciencedirect.com.ezproxy.lib.swin.edu.au/science/article/pii/S0167487012000967>

Harder J, 1991, ‘Equity Theory versus Expectancy Theory: The Case of Major League Baseball Free Agents’, Journal of Applied Psychology. vol. 76, no. 3, pp 458-464, Viewed 29 December 2013, <http://web.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.lib.swin.edu.au/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=7c01c5c1-43e3-4367-8a6c-43577dd0b030%40sessionmgr4004&vid=2&hid=4109>

Jarvis, M. 2006. Sports Psychology: A Students Handbook. [ONLINE] Available at: http://books.google.com.au/books?id=1CVVCaWj7gAC&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false [Viewed 27 December 13].

Kearns, K, 2010. Birth to Big School . 2nd ed. Frenchs Forest: Pearson Australia.

Lunenburg, F 2011, ‘Expectancy Theory of Motivation: Motivating by Altering Expectations’, International journal of management, business and administration vol. 15, no.1. Viewed 28 December 2013, <http://www.nationalforum.com/Electronic%20Journal%20Volumes/Luneneburg,%20Fred%20C%20Expectancy%20Theory%20%20Altering%20Expectations%20IJMBA%20V15%20N1%202011.pdf>

Metzger, M 2007, Making sense of credibility on the web, Wiley InterScience, Vol. 58 , no.13, pp. 2078-2091, viewed 16 January 2014, <http://web.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.lib.swin.edu.au/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=e4556538-a904-4c4e-9854-d9eee0bd4435%40sessionmgr4001&vid=2&hid=4101>

Schunk, D 2009, Goal setting, Education.com, viewed 27 December 2013, <http://www.education.com/reference/article/goal-setting/>

The Times 100 Case Studies. 2013. Building a better workplace through motivation. [ONLINE] Available at: http://businesscasestudies.co.uk. [Accessed 27 December 13].



Apart from clearly specifying a goal that is challenging but not too overwhelming, it is crucial to follow the last two conditions of Locke’s & Latham’s theory. Goal setting is most effective when there is feedback showing relation to the goal (Alispahic, 2014, P.197). Employees should receive objective and timely feedback – When positive re-enforcement is given along the journey will allow the employee to feel valued and motivated. An employee can show commitment to that goal if they are actively involved in setting own goals. Goal acceptance breeds commitment hence translates into performance gain.
The effectiveness of goal setting is also evident in sports; it increases the quality & quantity of performance in athletes. Goal setting theory of motivation helps athletes measure their skills and ability and think about where they are right now and where they like to be and what exactly they need to improve on.
Goal setting is an important component of student’s motivation, self-regulation and achievement in academic settings (Schunk, 2009), however committing to a long term goal such as completing a University degree might be too difficult and can de-motivate students to succeed. The goal acceptance condition of this theory can be achieved by thinking about the overall importance of the goal to the individual and therefore give them the power to be inspired on a daily basis
Maslow’s theory of motivation directly relates to students being able to reach their full learning potential. Students must have their physiological needs met before they enter the classroom. It would be very hard for example for a student to concentrate if they have not eaten. Once in the classroom it’s important that students feel safe and secure for maximum motivation to learn.
Sense of belonging and healthy self-esteem means that students are more likely to be active in their education, more willing to participate and be keen learners, reaching their goals. (Kearns, 2010)

Goal setting theory:
Goals make the world evolve, whether they symbolise personal or business objectives. According to Locke & Latham (2002), the probability that performance increase after a goal has been set is above 90% (Gomez-Minambres, 2012, p.1224). The effectiveness of Goal setting has been proven by many Psychologists, however to be successful in achieving set goals the following conditions must be met: Goal Difficulty, Goal Specific, Feedback and Goal acceptance.
Expectancy theory:
Vrooms theory of expectancy in motivation theory holds a different view to that of other motivational theorists. Rather than focus on definite ideas as to what motivates workers, the theory looks at variables that reflect the differences in a person’s motivation to work. (Lunenburg 2011, p1) By applying a formula based on the following:

Expectancy: the probability that effort in work will result in the desired performance level.

Instrumentality: the chance that the achieved work will result in some form of positive outcome

Valence: The workers desire that the reward given will be worth the effort applied. (Lunenburg 2011, pp2-3)


Mazlow's theory:
Abraham Mazlow’s theory of motivation is a hierarchy of needs, physiological, safety, belonging, self-esteem, and self-actualization. The thought behind this hierarchy is that once a need is satisfied, the individual will move onto the next need.
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